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Evolution Of Sleep

Author: Patrick McNamara
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521894972
Size: 79.10 MB
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This book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and biological anthropology and to biomedical researchers studying sleep medicine.

The Comparative Approach In Evolutionary Anthropology And Biology

Author: Charles L. Nunn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226608980
Size: 33.46 MB
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Comparison is fundamental to evolutionary anthropology. When scientists study chimpanzee cognition, for example, they compare chimp performance on cognitive tasks to the performance of human children on the same tasks. And when new fossils are found, such as those of the tiny humans of Flores, scientists compare these remains to other fossils and contemporary humans. Comparison provides a way to draw general inferences about the evolution of traits and therefore has long been the cornerstone of efforts to understand biological and cultural diversity. Individual studies of fossilized remains, living species, or human populations are the essential units of analysis in a comparative study; bringing these elements into a broader comparative framework allows the puzzle pieces to fall into place, creating a means of testing adaptive hypotheses and generating new ones. With this book, Charles L. Nunn intends to ensure that evolutionary anthropologists and organismal biologists have the tools to realize the potential of comparative research. Nunn provides a wide-ranging investigation of the comparative foundations of evolutionary anthropology in past and present research, including studies of animal behavior, biodiversity, linguistic evolution, allometry, and cross-cultural variation. He also points the way to the future, exploring the new phylogeny-based comparative approaches and offering a how-to manual for scientists who wish to incorporate these new methods into their research.

Encyclopedia Of Sleep And Dreams The Evolution Function Nature And Mysteries Of Slumber 2 Volumes

Author: Deirdre Barrett
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 031338665X
Size: 67.11 MB
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This fascinating reference covers the major topics concerning dreaming and sleep, based on the latest empirical evidence from sleep research as well as drawn from a broad range of dream-related interdisciplinary contexts, including history and anthropology. • 330 alphabetically arranged entries • An appendix provides resources for further reading, including online sources • A special index on dreams • Primary resources lists afer each entry for reference and review

Big Dreams

Author: Kelly Bulkeley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199351538
Size: 75.35 MB
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Big dreams are rare but highly memorable dream experiences that make a strong and lasting impact on the dreamer's waking awareness. Moving far beyond "I forgot to study and the finals are today" and other common scenarios, such dreams can include vivid imagery, intense emotions, fantastic characters, and an uncanny sense of being connected to forces beyond one's ordinary dreaming mind. In Big Dreams, Kelly Bulkeley provides the first full-scale cognitive scientific analysis of such dreams, putting forth an original theory about their formation, function, and meaning. Big dreams have played significant roles in religious and cultural history, but because of their infrequent occurrence and fantastical features, they have rarely been studied in light of modern science. We know a great deal about the religious manifestations of big dreams throughout history and around the world, but until now that cross-cultural knowledge has never been integrated with scientific research on their psychological roots in the brain-mind system. In Big Dreams, Bulkeley puts a classic psychological thesis to the scientific test by clarifying and improving it with better data, sharper analysis, and a broader evolutionary framework. He brings evidence from multiple sources, shows patterns of similarity and difference, questions prior assumptions, and provides predictive models that can be applied to new sets of data. The notion of a connection between dreaming and religion has always been intuitively compelling; Big Dreams transforms it into a solid premise of religious studies and brain-mind science. Combining evidence from religious studies, psychology, anthropology, evolutionary biology, and neuroscience, Big Dreams makes a compelling argument that big dreams are a primal wellspring of religious experience. They represent an innate, neurologically hard-wired capacity of our species that regularly provokes greater self-awareness, creativity, and insight into the existential challenges and spiritual potentials of human life.

Nightmares

Author: Patrick McNamara
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 0313345120
Size: 70.72 MB
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Draws us into the world of nightmares, explaining what is known, suspected, and still mysterious about them, as well as why they might not be a sign of disorder but, instead, like a fever - unpleasant yet adaptive and even life-giving.

Biology And Evolution Of The Mexican Cavefish

Author: Alex Keene
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128023651
Size: 71.15 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish features contributions by leading researchers in a comprehensive, unique work that examines a number of distinct areas of biology—evolution, development, ecology, and behavior—using the Mexican cavefish as a powerful model system to further understanding of basic biological processes such as eye degeneration, hearing, craniofacial development, sleep, and metabolic function. These fish are currently being used to better understand a number of issues related to human health, including age-related blindness, sleep, obesity, mood-related disorders, and aging. The recent sequencing of the cavefish genome broadens the interest of this system to groups working with diverse biological systems, and has helped researchers identify genes that regulate sleep, eye degeneration, and metabolic function. Mexican cavefish are particularly powerful for the study of biological processes because these fish evolved independently in twenty-nine caves in the Sierra de el Abra Region of Northeast Mexico. These fish have dramatic adaptations to the cave environment, and this can be used to identify genes involved in disease-related traits. This scholarly text will be of interest to researchers and students throughout diverse areas of biology and ecology. It includes photographs of animals and behavior in laboratory and natural settings that will also increase interest and accessibility to non-experts. Includes a mixture of images and illustrations such as the geographical distribution of cave pools and the developmental biology of the nervous system Features a companion site with geographical maps Fills a notable gap in the literature on a topic of broad interest to the scientific community Presents the recent sequencing of the cavefish genome as a groundbreaking development for researchers working with diverse biological systems

The Physiologic Nature Of Sleep

Author: Pier Luigi Parmeggiani
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783260300
Size: 77.46 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides a broad introduction to the fascinating subject of sleep, a behavioral state in which human beings spend a third of their life span, and a topic which interests not only the specialist but also the layperson. Everybody knows that well-being also depends on undisturbed, normal sleep. The Physiologic Nature of Sleep is self-contained in presentation. It may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in biology, medicine and psychology. It is also suitable for the expert hypnologist who wishes to have an overview of some of the classic and fundamental achievements in sleep research. The explanations in the book are detailed enough to capture the interest of the curious reader, and complete enough to provide the necessary background material needed to go further into the subject and explore the research literature. Contents:General Aspects of Sleep:Energy Processes Underlying the Sleep–Wake Cycle (R Cespuglio et al.)Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators, and Sleep (R E Brown & R W McCarley) Electroencephalography, Polysomnography, and Other Sleep Recording Systems (R Peraita-Adrados)The Power of Behavioral Analysis in Understanding Sleep Mechanisms (A R Morrison) Animal Sleep: Phylogenetic Correlations (S Esteban et al.)Physiological Functions in Sleep:Neural Control of Breathing in Sleep (J M Orem)Regulation of Cerebral Circulation During Sleep (G Zoccoli et al.)Thermoregulation and Sleep in Human (J-P Libert & V Bach)Cognitive Aspects of Sleep: Perception, Mentation, and Dreaming (C M Portas)Sleep and Memory (C Cipolli)and other papers Readership: Sleep researchers, clinicians, biologists, neurophysiologists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, pheumologists, hypnologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, pharmacologists, postdoctoral students, graduate and advanced undergraduate students in biology, medicine and psychology. Key Features:Deals with topics scarcely considered in current sleep literatureWritten by experts who are personally carrying out original studies on the treated issuesThe authors of the chapters are well known members of the international community of sleep researchersKeywords:Sleep;Phylogenesis;Rhythms;Mechanisms;Recording Technology;Sensory;Autonomic;Somatic;Cognitive;Memory

The Evolution Of The Human Head

Author: Daniel Lieberman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674046366
Size: 21.14 MB
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Dan Lieberman has written an innovative, exhaustively researched and carefully argued book dealing with the evolution of the human head. In it he addresses three interrelated questions. First, why does the human head look the way it does? Second, why did these transformations occur? And third, how is something as complex and vital as the head so variable and evolvable? This book addresses these questions in three sections. The first set of chapters review how human and ape heads grow, both in terms of individual parts (organs and regions) and as an integrated whole. The second section reviews how the head performs its major functions: housing the brain, chewing, swallowing, breathing, vocalizing, thermoregulating, seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and balancing during locomotion. The final set of chapters review the fossil evidence for major transformations of the head during human evolution from the divergence of the human and ape lineages through the origins of Homo sapiens. These chapters use developmental and functional insights from the first two sections to speculate on the developmental and selective bases for these transformations.

A Natural History Of Rape

Author: Randy Thornhill
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262700832
Size: 65.60 MB
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A biologist and an anthropologist use evolutionary biology to explain the causes and inform the prevention of rape.