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Evolutionary Community Ecology

Author: Mark A. McPeek
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888212
Size: 27.32 MB
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Evolutionary Community Ecology develops a unified framework for understanding the structure of ecological communities and the dynamics of natural selection that shape the evolution of the species inhabiting them. All species engage in interactions with many other species, and these interactions regulate their abundance, define their trajectories of natural selection, and shape their movement decisions. Mark McPeek synthesizes the ecological and evolutionary dynamics generated by species interactions that structure local biological communities and regional metacommunities. McPeek explores the ecological performance characteristics needed for invasibility and coexistence of species in complex networks of species interactions. This species interaction framework is then extended to examine the ecological dynamics of natural selection that drive coevolution of interacting species in these complex interaction networks. The models of natural selection resulting from species interactions are used to evaluate the ecological conditions that foster diversification at multiple trophic levels. Analyses show that diversification depends on the ecological context in which species interactions occur and the types of traits that define the mechanisms of those species interactions. Lastly, looking at the mechanisms of speciation that affect species richness and diversity at various spatial scales and the consequences of past climate change over the Quaternary period, McPeek considers how metacommunity structure is shaped at regional and biogeographic scales. Integrating evolutionary theory into the study of community ecology, Evolutionary Community Ecology provides a new framework for predicting how communities are organized and how they may change over time.

Evolutionary Community Ecology Time To Think Outside The Taxonomic Box

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Size: 19.75 MB
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Abstract : Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long been interested in the role of interspecific competition in the diversification of clades. These studies often focus on a single taxonomic group, making the implicit assumption that important competitive interactions occur only between closely related taxa, despite abundant documentation of intense competition between species that are distantly related. Specifically, this assumption ignores convergence of distantly related competitors on limiting niche axes and thus may miss cryptic effects of distantly related competitors on the evolution of focal clades. For example, distantly related competitors may act as important drivers of niche conservatism within clades, a pattern commonly ascribed to evolutionary constraints or the abiotic environment. Here we propose an alternative model of how niche similarity evolves when the functional traits of interest are mediated by unrelated phenotypic traits, as is often the case for distantly related competitors. This model represents an important conceptual step towards a more accurate, taxonomically inclusive understanding of the role that competition plays in the micro- and macroevolution of interacting species. Highlights: Studies of evolutionary community ecology often assume that competitive interactions occur primarily and most intensely between closely related species, implicitly invoking the competition-relatedness hypothesis. This competition-relatedness assumption is at odds with recent theory and a wealth of empirical studies demonstrating intense competition between distantly related species. Here we provide an alternative, taxonomically inclusive framework for understanding the relationship between evolutionary relatedness and competitive interactions. This framework indicates an approach to evolutionary community ecology that relies on field and experimental data to detect species interactions and resource overlap rather than inference from phylogenetic or morphological similarity alone. A more accurate picture of the role that species interactions play in the assembly and evolution of communities will require that researchers think critically about their systems and be prepared to work outside traditional taxonomic constraints.

Community Ecology

Author: Herman A. Verhoef
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228973
Size: 38.80 MB
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This is an up-to-date study of patterns and processes involving two or more species. The book strikes a balance between plant and animal species and among studies of marine, freshwater and terrestrial communities.

Aboveground Belowground Community Ecology

Author: Takayuki Ohgushi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319916149
Size: 44.84 MB
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Researchers now recognize that above- and belowground communities are indirectly linked to one another, often by plant-mediated mechanisms. To date, however, there has been no single multi-authored edited volume on the subject. This book remedies that gap, and offers state-of-the art insights into basic and applied research on aboveground-belowground interactions and their functional consequences. Drawing on a diverse pool of global expertise, the authors present diverse approaches that span a range of scales and levels of complexity. The respective chapters provide in-depth information on the current state of research, and outline future prospects in the field of aboveground-belowground community ecology. In particular, the book’s goal is to expand readers’ knowledge of the evolutionary, community and ecosystem consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions, making it essential reading for all biologists, graduate students and advanced undergraduates working in this rapidly expanding field. It touches on multiple research fields including ecology, botany, zoology, entomology, microbiology and the related applied areas of biodiversity management and conservation.

Discovering Evolutionary Ecology

Author: Peter J. Mayhew
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0198570600
Size: 41.78 MB
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This text provides a concise and readable introduction to evolutionary ecology, a field of questions united by the intermix of evolutionary and ecological knowledge.

Evolutionary Biology

Author: Pierre Pontarotti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642009525
Size: 62.86 MB
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Since 1997, scientists of different disciplines sharing a deep interest in concepts and knowledge related to evolutionary biology have held the annual Evolutionary Biology Meetings in Marseille in order to discuss their research and promote collaboration. Lately scientists especially focusing on applications have also joined the group. This book starts with the report of the "12th Evolutionary Biology Meeting", which gives a general idea of the meeting’s epistemological stance. This is followed by 22 chapters, a selection of the most representative contributions, which are grouped under the following four themes: Part I Concepts and Knowledge - Part II Modelization - Part III Applied Evolutionary Biology - Part IV Applications in Other Fields -Part IV transcends the field of biology, presenting applications of evolutionary biology in economics and astronomy.

Modern Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And Their Application In Evolutionary Biology

Author: László Zsolt Garamszegi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662435500
Size: 13.86 MB
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Phylogenetic comparative approaches are powerful analytical tools for making evolutionary inferences from interspecific data and phylogenies. The phylogenetic toolkit available to evolutionary biologists is currently growing at an incredible speed, but most methodological papers are published in the specialized statistical literature and many are incomprehensible for the user community. This textbook provides an overview of several newly developed phylogenetic comparative methods that allow to investigate a broad array of questions on how phenotypic characters evolve along the branches of phylogeny and how such mechanisms shape complex animal communities and interspecific interactions. The individual chapters were written by the leading experts in the field and using a language that is accessible for practicing evolutionary biologists. The authors carefully explain the philosophy behind different methodologies and provide pointers – mostly using a dynamically developing online interface – on how these methods can be implemented in practice. These “conceptual” and “practical” materials are essential for expanding the qualification of both students and scientists, but also offer a valuable resource for educators. Another value of the book are the accompanying online resources (available at: http://www.mpcm-evolution.com), where the authors post and permanently update practical materials to help embed methods into practice.

Evolutionary Paleobiology

Author: James W. Valentine
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226389110
Size: 39.67 MB
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Representing the state of the art in evolutionary paleobiology, this book provides a much-needed overview of this rapidly changing field. An influx of ideas and techniques both from other areas of biology and from within paleobiology itself have resulted in numerous recent advances, including increased recognition of the relationships between ecological and evolutionary theory, renewed vigor in the study of ecological communities over geologic timescales, increased understanding of biogeographical patterns, and new mathematical approaches to studying the form and structure of plants and animals. Contributors to this volume—a veritable who's who of eminent researchers—present the results of original research and new theoretical developments, and provide directions for future studies. Individually wide ranging, these papers all share a debt to the work of James W. Valentine, one of the founders of modern evolutionary paleobiology. This volume's unified approach to the study of life on earth will be a major contribution to paleobiology, evolution, and ecology.

Evolutionary Ecology

Author:
Publisher: Eric R. Pianka
ISBN:
Size: 35.27 MB
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Finally, an eBook version of this now classic textbook has become available. Largely based on the 6th edition, published in 2000, this version is competitively priced. Written by well-known ecologist Eric R. Pianka, a student of the late Robert H. MacArthur, this timeless treatment of evolutionary ecology, first published in 1974, will endure for many decades to come. Basic principles of ecology are framed in an evolutionary perspective.