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Evolutionary Ecology Of Social And Sexual Systems

Author: J. Emmett Duffy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199720682
Size: 54.52 MB
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Understanding of animal social and sexual evolution has seen a renaissance in recent years with discoveries of frequent infidelity in apparently monogamous species, the importance of sperm competition, active female mate choice, and eusocial behavior in animals outside the traditional social insect groups. Each of these findings has raised new questions, and suggested new answers, about the evolution of behavioral interactions among animals. This volume synthesizes recent research on the sexual and social biology of the Crustacea, one of the dominant invertebrate groups on earth. Its staggering diversity includes ecologically important inhabitants of nearly every environment from deep-sea trenches, through headwater streams, to desert soils. The wide range of crustacean phenotypes and environments is accompanied by a comparable diversity of behavioral and social systems, including the elaborate courtship and wildly exaggerated morphologies of fiddler crabs, the mysterious queuing behavior of migrating spiny lobsters, and even eusociality in coral-reef shrimps. This diversity makes crustaceans particularly valuable for exploring the comparative evolution of sexual and social systems. Despite exciting recent advances, however, general recognition of the value of Crustacea as models has lagged behind that of the better studied insects and vertebrates. This book synthesizes the state of the field in crustacean behavior and sociobiology and places it in a conceptually based, comparative framework that will be valuable to active researchers and students in animal behavior, ecology, and evolutionary biology. It brings together a group of internationally recognized and rising experts in fields related to crustacean behavioral ecology, ranging from physiology and functional morphology, through mating and social behavior, to ecology and phylogeny. Each chapter makes connections to other, non-crustacean taxa, and the volume closes with a summary section that synthesizes the contributions, discusses anthropogenic impacts, highlights unanswered questions, and provides a vision for profitable future research.

Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics

Author: Joel W. Martin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420092592
Size: 80.87 MB
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Decapod crustaceans are of tremendous interest and importance evolutionarily, ecologically, and economically. There is no shortage of publications reflecting the wide variety of ideas and hypotheses concerning decapod phylogeny, but until recently, the world’s leading decapodologists had never assembled to elucidate and discuss relationships among the major decapod lineages and between decapods and other crustaceans. Based on the findings presented by an international group of scientists at a symposium supported by the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, The Crustacean Society, and several other societies, and with major funding from the National Science Foundation, Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics provides a comprehensive synopsis of the current knowledge of this vast and important group of animals. This volume contains state-of-the-art reviews of literature and methodologies for elucidating decapod phylogeny. The contributions include studies on the fossil origin of decapods, morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses, the evolution of mating and its bearing on phylogeny, decapod "evo-devo" studies, decapod spermiocladistics, and phylogenetic inference. The experts also present research on preliminary attempts to construct the first known phylogenetic tree for various groups of decapods. Several contributions offer the most comprehensive analyses to date on major clades of decapods, and others introduce data or approaches that could be used in the future to help resolve the phylogeny of the Decapoda. Currently, the Decapoda contain an estimated 15,000 species, some of which support seafood and marine industries worth billions of dollars each year to the world’s economy. This volume is a fascinating overview of where we are currently in our understanding of these important creatures and their phylogeny and also provides a window into the future of decapod research. This work will be of great interest to researchers, instructors, and students in marine biology, evolutionary biology, crustacean biology, resource management, and biodiversity database management.

The Natural History Of The Crustacea

Author: Martin Thiel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190620285
Size: 27.10 MB
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Crustaceans are increasingly being used as model organisms in all fields of biology, including neurobiology, developmental biology, animal physiology, evolutionary ecology, biogeography, and resource management. Crustaceans have a very wide range of phenotypes and inhabit a diverse array of environments, ranging from the deep sea to high mountain lakes and even deserts. The evolution of their life histories has permitted crustaceans to successfully colonize this variety of habitats. Few other taxa exhibit such a variety of life histories and behavior. A comprehensive overview of their life histories is essential to the understanding of many aspects of their success in marine and terrestrial environments. This volume provides a general overview of crustacean life histories. Crustaceans have particular life history adaptations that have permitted them to conquer all environments on earth. Crustacean life cycles have evolved to maximize fecundity, growth, and ageing, in a wide range of environmental conditions. Individual contributions contrast benefits and costs of different life histories including sexual versus asexual production, semelparity versus iteroparity, and planktonic larvae versus direct development. Important aspects of particular behaviors are presented (e.g. migrations, defense and territorial behaviors, anti-predator behavior, symbiosis).

Die Soziale Eroberung Der Erde

Author: Edward O. Wilson
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406645313
Size: 51.44 MB
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Woher kommen wir? Was sind wir? Wohin gehen wir? Der große Biologe E. O. Wilson entschlüsselt die Evolution des Menschen Die soziale Eroberung der Erde ist die Summe lebenslanger innovativer Forschung, die Krönung des Lebenswerkes von Edward O. Wilson. Seine weitreichende These: Die soziale Gruppe und nicht das egoistische Gen war der entscheidende Faktor der Menschwerdung. "Keinem außer Edward O. Wilson konnte eine derart brillante Synthese aus Biologie und Geisteswissenschaften gelingen, die Licht wirft auf den Ursprung von Sprache, Religion, Kunst und der gesamten menschlichen Kultur." Oliver Sacks "Eine große, doch einfache Fragestellung, überzeugende Erklärungen, eine meisterhafte Beherrschung der Wissenschaft und eine anschauliche, verständliche Darstellung einmal mehr hat E.O. Wilson ein Buch geschrieben mit den Qualitäten, die ihm Pulitzerpreise und ein Millionenpublikum eingebracht haben." Jared Diamond "Ein fabelhaftes Buch." Bill Clinton

Evolution In Action

Author: Matthias Glaubrecht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124259
Size: 10.55 MB
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Radiations, or Evolution in Action We have just celebrated the “Darwin Year” with the double anniversary of his 200th birthday and 150th year of his masterpiece, “On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection”. In this work, Darwin established the factual evidence of biological evolution, that species change over time, and that new organisms arise by the splitting of ancestral forms into two or more descendant species. However, above all, Darwin provided the mechanisms by arguing convincingly that it is by natural selection – as well as by sexual selection (as he later added) – that organisms adapt to their environment. The many discoveries since then have essentially con?rmed and strengthened Darwin’s central theses, with latest evidence, for example, from molecular genetics, revealing the evolutionary relationships of all life forms through one shared history of descent from a common ancestor. We have also come a long way to progressively understand more on how new species actually originate, i. e. on speciation which remained Darwin’s “mystery of m- teries”, as noted in one of his earliest transmutation notebooks. Since speciation is the underlying mechanism for radiations, it is the ultimate causation for the biological diversity of life that surrounds us.

Lobsters

Author: Bruce Phillips
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118517490
Size: 71.20 MB
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This expanded and fully updated Second Edition of the mostcomprehensive and successful book on lobsters, comprisescontributions from many of the world’s experts, eachproviding core information for all those working in lobsterbiology, fisheries research and management and lobsteraquaculture. Under the editorship of Bruce Phillips, the Second Edition ofLobsters: Biology, Management, Fisheries and Aquaculturedelivers exhaustive coverage of these fascinating creatures,stretching from growth and development to management andconservation. A number of chapters from the First Edition coveringGrowth, Reproduction, Diseases, Behaviour, Nutrition, Larval andPost-Larval Ecology and Juvenile and Adult Ecology have beenreplaced by new chapters including Lobsters in Ecosystems,Genetics, Translocation, Climate Change, Ecolabelling of Lobsters,Casitas and Other Artificial Shelters, Systems to maximise EconomicBenefits.. These new chapters reflect changes that are occurring inlobster management and new research developments brought on bysocial, climatic and economic changes. As well as information from new research output, information ineach chapter is also included on individual commercial Genera,including aspects of Species and distribution, Predators anddiseases, Ecology and behaviour, Aquaculture and enhancement,Harvest of wild populations and their regulations, Management andconservation. The chapter on slipper lobsters has also beenexpanded to include Thenus and Ibacus species whichare now subject to commercial fisheries. The changes that haveoccurred in some lobster fisheries, the new management arrangementsin place, the status of stocks and the current economic and socialsituation of each fishery have also been covered and discussed ingreat detail. Fisheries scientists, fisheries managers aquaculture personnel,aquatic and invertebrate biologists, physiologists, ecologists,marine biologists and environmental biologists will all findLobsters Second Edition to be a vital source of reference.Libraries in all universities and research establishments wherebiological and life sciences and fisheries and aquaculture arestudied and taught will find it an extremely valuable addition totheir shelves.

Sexual Biology And Reproduction In Crustaceans

Author: Thanumalaya Subramoniam
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128096063
Size: 19.85 MB
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Sexual Biology and Reproduction in Crustaceans covers crustacean reproduction as it deals with the structural morphology of the gamete-producing primary sex organs, such as the testis and ovary, the formation and maturation of gametes, their fusion during fertilization, and embryonic development that lead to the release of larvae. Constituting a diverse assemblage of animals, crustaceans are best known by their common representatives, such as shrimps, lobsters, and crabs, but also include many more less familiar, but biologically important forms. This work covers the variety of ways in which both male and female gametes are produced by evolving different sexual systems in crustaceans, the range of reproductive systems, and the accordingly, and highly diverse, mechanistic modes of sex determination. In addition, the book features such topics as genetic and environmental determinants in sex determination pattern, variability of mechanisms of fertilization among different species, the origin of different mating systems, the associated mating and brooding behaviors, and the adaptive ability to different environmental conditions with discussion on the evolutionary ecology of social and sexual systems in certain species, which have shown eusocial tendencies, similar to social insects. Marine species occupying diversified ecological niches in tropical and temperate zones reproduce under definitive environmental conditions. Therefore, reproductive ecology of different crustaceans inhabiting different ecological niches also constitutes another important aspect of the work, along with yolk utilization and embryogenesis leading to release of different larval forms, which reflect on their aquatic adaptability. Forms a valuable source of recent references on the current research in crustacean reproductive physiology Covers various mating and breeding systems, providing illustrative examples for sexual selection, parental care of developing eggs and embryos, and the evolution of other reproductive behaviors Features contributions written in the form of review articles, enabling readers to not only gain information in the respective subject, but also help them stimulate ideas in their chosen field of research Includes a glossary created by the author to define technical terms Demonstrates the ability of crustacean species to serve as useful model systems for other organisms, to investigate issues related to sexual conflict, mate choice, and sperm competition Discusses techniques in endocrine research to help researchers in aquaculture develop protocols in the control of reproduction

Proceedings Of The Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium

Author: Michael A. Lang
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 37.92 MB
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The Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium was held on 15-16 November 2007 in Washington, D.C. It represented the first major dissemination of marine research results since the establishment of the Smithsonian Marine Science Network (MSN). The 39 papers in this volume represent a wide range of marine research studies that demonstrate the breadth and diversity of science initiatives supported by the MSN. The first section contains an overview of the MSN along with papers describing the multidisciplinary investigations spanning more than 37 years for the four Smithsonian marine facilities that constitute the Network: the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center at the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland; the National Museum of Natural History's Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida; the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program, with its Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize; and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. Subsequent papers represent findings by Smithsonian scholars and their collaborators on overarching topics of marine biodiversity, evolution, and speciation; biogeography, invasive species, and marine conservation; and forces of ecological change in marine systems.