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Evolutionary Ecology Of Social And Sexual Systems

Author: J. Emmett Duffy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199720682
Size: 11.45 MB
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Understanding of animal social and sexual evolution has seen a renaissance in recent years with discoveries of frequent infidelity in apparently monogamous species, the importance of sperm competition, active female mate choice, and eusocial behavior in animals outside the traditional social insect groups. Each of these findings has raised new questions, and suggested new answers, about the evolution of behavioral interactions among animals. This volume synthesizes recent research on the sexual and social biology of the Crustacea, one of the dominant invertebrate groups on earth. Its staggering diversity includes ecologically important inhabitants of nearly every environment from deep-sea trenches, through headwater streams, to desert soils. The wide range of crustacean phenotypes and environments is accompanied by a comparable diversity of behavioral and social systems, including the elaborate courtship and wildly exaggerated morphologies of fiddler crabs, the mysterious queuing behavior of migrating spiny lobsters, and even eusociality in coral-reef shrimps. This diversity makes crustaceans particularly valuable for exploring the comparative evolution of sexual and social systems. Despite exciting recent advances, however, general recognition of the value of Crustacea as models has lagged behind that of the better studied insects and vertebrates. This book synthesizes the state of the field in crustacean behavior and sociobiology and places it in a conceptually based, comparative framework that will be valuable to active researchers and students in animal behavior, ecology, and evolutionary biology. It brings together a group of internationally recognized and rising experts in fields related to crustacean behavioral ecology, ranging from physiology and functional morphology, through mating and social behavior, to ecology and phylogeny. Each chapter makes connections to other, non-crustacean taxa, and the volume closes with a summary section that synthesizes the contributions, discusses anthropogenic impacts, highlights unanswered questions, and provides a vision for profitable future research.

Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics

Author: Joel W. Martin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420092592
Size: 75.97 MB
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Decapod crustaceans are of tremendous interest and importance evolutionarily, ecologically, and economically. There is no shortage of publications reflecting the wide variety of ideas and hypotheses concerning decapod phylogeny, but until recently, the world’s leading decapodologists had never assembled to elucidate and discuss relationships among the major decapod lineages and between decapods and other crustaceans. Based on the findings presented by an international group of scientists at a symposium supported by the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, The Crustacean Society, and several other societies, and with major funding from the National Science Foundation, Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics provides a comprehensive synopsis of the current knowledge of this vast and important group of animals. This volume contains state-of-the-art reviews of literature and methodologies for elucidating decapod phylogeny. The contributions include studies on the fossil origin of decapods, morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses, the evolution of mating and its bearing on phylogeny, decapod "evo-devo" studies, decapod spermiocladistics, and phylogenetic inference. The experts also present research on preliminary attempts to construct the first known phylogenetic tree for various groups of decapods. Several contributions offer the most comprehensive analyses to date on major clades of decapods, and others introduce data or approaches that could be used in the future to help resolve the phylogeny of the Decapoda. Currently, the Decapoda contain an estimated 15,000 species, some of which support seafood and marine industries worth billions of dollars each year to the world’s economy. This volume is a fascinating overview of where we are currently in our understanding of these important creatures and their phylogeny and also provides a window into the future of decapod research. This work will be of great interest to researchers, instructors, and students in marine biology, evolutionary biology, crustacean biology, resource management, and biodiversity database management.

Functional Morphology And Diversity

Author: Les Watling
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195398033
Size: 56.38 MB
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Explores the functional morphology of crustaceans, which cover the main body parts and systems.

The Natural History Of The Crustacea

Author: Martin Thiel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190620285
Size: 79.79 MB
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Crustaceans are increasingly being used as model organisms in all fields of biology, including neurobiology, developmental biology, animal physiology, evolutionary ecology, biogeography, and resource management. Crustaceans have a very wide range of phenotypes and inhabit a diverse array of environments, ranging from the deep sea to high mountain lakes and even deserts. The evolution of their life histories has permitted crustaceans to successfully colonize this variety of habitats. Few other taxa exhibit such a variety of life histories and behavior. A comprehensive overview of their life histories is essential to the understanding of many aspects of their success in marine and terrestrial environments. This volume provides a general overview of crustacean life histories. Crustaceans have particular life history adaptations that have permitted them to conquer all environments on earth. Crustacean life cycles have evolved to maximize fecundity, growth, and ageing, in a wide range of environmental conditions. Individual contributions contrast benefits and costs of different life histories including sexual versus asexual production, semelparity versus iteroparity, and planktonic larvae versus direct development. Important aspects of particular behaviors are presented (e.g. migrations, defense and territorial behaviors, anti-predator behavior, symbiosis).

Sexual Biology And Reproduction In Crustaceans

Author: Thanumalaya Subramoniam
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128096063
Size: 54.46 MB
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Sexual Biology and Reproduction in Crustaceans covers crustacean reproduction as it deals with the structural morphology of the gamete-producing primary sex organs, such as the testis and ovary, the formation and maturation of gametes, their fusion during fertilization, and embryonic development that lead to the release of larvae. Constituting a diverse assemblage of animals, crustaceans are best known by their common representatives, such as shrimps, lobsters, and crabs, but also include many more less familiar, but biologically important forms. This work covers the variety of ways in which both male and female gametes are produced by evolving different sexual systems in crustaceans, the range of reproductive systems, and the accordingly, and highly diverse, mechanistic modes of sex determination. In addition, the book features such topics as genetic and environmental determinants in sex determination pattern, variability of mechanisms of fertilization among different species, the origin of different mating systems, the associated mating and brooding behaviors, and the adaptive ability to different environmental conditions with discussion on the evolutionary ecology of social and sexual systems in certain species, which have shown eusocial tendencies, similar to social insects. Marine species occupying diversified ecological niches in tropical and temperate zones reproduce under definitive environmental conditions. Therefore, reproductive ecology of different crustaceans inhabiting different ecological niches also constitutes another important aspect of the work, along with yolk utilization and embryogenesis leading to release of different larval forms, which reflect on their aquatic adaptability. Forms a valuable source of recent references on the current research in crustacean reproductive physiology Covers various mating and breeding systems, providing illustrative examples for sexual selection, parental care of developing eggs and embryos, and the evolution of other reproductive behaviors Features contributions written in the form of review articles, enabling readers to not only gain information in the respective subject, but also help them stimulate ideas in their chosen field of research Includes a glossary created by the author to define technical terms Demonstrates the ability of crustacean species to serve as useful model systems for other organisms, to investigate issues related to sexual conflict, mate choice, and sperm competition Discusses techniques in endocrine research to help researchers in aquaculture develop protocols in the control of reproduction

Chemical Communication In Crustaceans

Author: Thomas Breithaupt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387771014
Size: 80.45 MB
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The crustaceans are ecologically and economically important organisms. They constitute one of the dominant invertebrate groups on earth, particularly within the aquatic realm. Crustaceans include some of the preferred scientific model organism, profitable aquaculture specimen, but also invasive nuisance species threatening native animal communities throughout the world. Chemoreception is the most important sensory modality of crustaceans, acquiring important information about their environment and picking up the chemical signals that mediate communication with conspecifics. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of crustacean chemical communication during the past decade. This includes knowledge about the identity, production, transfer, reception and behavioral function of chemical signals in selected crustacean groups. While it is well known that chemical communication is an integral part of the behavioral ecology of most living organisms, the intricate ways in which organisms allocate chemicals in communication remains enigmatic. How does the environment influence the evolution of chemical communication? What are the environmental cues that induce production or release of chemicals? How do individuals economize production and utilization of chemicals? What is the importance of molecule specificity or mix of a molecule cocktail in chemical communication? What is the role of chemical cues in multimodal communication? How does the ontogenetic stage, the sex or the physiological status of an individual affect its reaction to chemical cues? Many of these questions still represent important challenges to biologists.

Evolution In Action

Author: Matthias Glaubrecht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124259
Size: 65.77 MB
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Radiations, or Evolution in Action We have just celebrated the “Darwin Year” with the double anniversary of his 200th birthday and 150th year of his masterpiece, “On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection”. In this work, Darwin established the factual evidence of biological evolution, that species change over time, and that new organisms arise by the splitting of ancestral forms into two or more descendant species. However, above all, Darwin provided the mechanisms by arguing convincingly that it is by natural selection – as well as by sexual selection (as he later added) – that organisms adapt to their environment. The many discoveries since then have essentially con?rmed and strengthened Darwin’s central theses, with latest evidence, for example, from molecular genetics, revealing the evolutionary relationships of all life forms through one shared history of descent from a common ancestor. We have also come a long way to progressively understand more on how new species actually originate, i. e. on speciation which remained Darwin’s “mystery of m- teries”, as noted in one of his earliest transmutation notebooks. Since speciation is the underlying mechanism for radiations, it is the ultimate causation for the biological diversity of life that surrounds us.

Lobsters

Author: Bruce Phillips
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118517490
Size: 51.82 MB
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This expanded and fully updated Second Edition of the most comprehensive and successful book on lobsters, comprises contributions from many of the world’s experts, each providing core information for all those working in lobster biology, fisheries research and management and lobster aquaculture. Under the editorship of Bruce Phillips, the Second Edition of Lobsters: Biology, Management, Fisheries and Aquaculture delivers exhaustive coverage of these fascinating creatures, stretching from growth and development to management and conservation. A number of chapters from the First Edition covering Growth, Reproduction, Diseases, Behaviour, Nutrition, Larval and Post-Larval Ecology and Juvenile and Adult Ecology have been replaced by new chapters including Lobsters in Ecosystems, Genetics, Translocation, Climate Change, Ecolabelling of Lobsters, Casitas and Other Artificial Shelters, Systems to maximise Economic Benefits.. These new chapters reflect changes that are occurring in lobster management and new research developments brought on by social, climatic and economic changes. As well as information from new research output, information in each chapter is also included on individual commercial Genera, including aspects of Species and distribution, Predators and diseases, Ecology and behaviour, Aquaculture and enhancement, Harvest of wild populations and their regulations, Management and conservation. The chapter on slipper lobsters has also been expanded to include Thenus and Ibacus species which are now subject to commercial fisheries. The changes that have occurred in some lobster fisheries, the new management arrangements in place, the status of stocks and the current economic and social situation of each fishery have also been covered and discussed in great detail. Fisheries scientists, fisheries managers aquaculture personnel, aquatic and invertebrate biologists, physiologists, ecologists, marine biologists and environmental biologists will all find Lobsters Second Edition to be a vital source of reference. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and life sciences and fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught will find it an extremely valuable addition to their shelves.

Marine Chemical Ecology

Author: James B. McClintock
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420036602
Size: 63.79 MB
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The interdisciplinary field of marine chemical ecology is an expanding and dynamic science. It is no surprise that the breadth of marine organisms studied expanded in concert with developments in underwater technology. With its up-to-date subject reviews by experts, Marine Chemical Ecology is the most current, comprehensive book on the subject. The book provides cellular, physiological, organismal, evolutionary, and applied perspectives creating a high-resolution snapshot of the field at the start of the 21st century. The introductory section provides a broad phylogenic overview of marine organic chemistry. With its emphasis on evolutionary, ecological, and biosynthetic considerations, it sets a foundation for the chapters that follow. The second section takes an organismal approach to understanding the role of secondary metabolites in mediating trophic interrelationships. Section three reviews cellular and physiological aspects of marine chemical ecology. The final section discusses practical applications. Fully detailed with figures, tables, and chemical structural diagrams, the book's coverage spans aspects of marine ecology from molecular to community levels, bridging diverse disciplines. Written by an international panel, Marine Chemical Ecology provides a conceptual synthesis and overview of the discipline. You get an integrated perspective of the current state of the field, and its future.

Mating Systems And Strategies

Author: Stephen M. Shuster
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691049311
Size: 73.34 MB
Format: PDF
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Presenting a unified conceptual and statistical framework for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies, this text uses the concept of the opportunity for sexual selection, illustrating how and why sexual selection is one of the strongest and fastest of all evolutionary strategies.