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Exit Voice And Loyalty

Author: Albert O. Hirschman
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674276604
Size: 10.13 MB
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An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth. Albert O. Hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and, in general, to dissatisfaction with organizations: one, “exit,” is for the member to quit the organization or for the customer to switch to the competing product, and the other, “voice,” is for members or customers to agitate and exert influence for change “from within.” The efficiency of the competitive mechanism, with its total reliance on exit, is questioned for certain important situations. As exit often undercuts voice while being unable to counteract decline, loyalty is seen in the function of retarding exit and of permitting voice to play its proper role. The interplay of the three concepts turns out to illuminate a wide range of economic, social, and political phenomena. As the author states in the preface, “having found my own unifying way of looking at issues as diverse as competition and the two-party system, divorce and the American character, black power and the failure of 'unhappy' top officials to resign over Vietnam, I decided to let myself go a little.”

Exit Voice And Loyalty In Asia

Author: Takashi Inoguchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811047243
Size: 73.60 MB
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This book provides insightful observations and analyses of Asian citizens’ behaviour associated with requests to get a permit in conditions typically characterized by bureaucratic callousness. Using the AsiaBarometer Survey data on quality of life, it studies various types of behaviour using the multi-level regression models for 32 countries. In doing so, the book provides insights into how these societies cope with the state’s bureaucratism using Albert Hirschman’s concepts of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Arguments are then juxtaposed with issues such as rampant corruption, government regulatory principles and measures, and calls by international organisations and non-governmental groups for business firms to be more strictly bound. Given the generally receding tide of democracy in Asian societies, this book will be of interest to academics, business, mass media and other professionals.

Worldly Philosopher

Author: Jeremy Adelman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846846
Size: 41.33 MB
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Worldly Philosopher chronicles the times and writings of Albert O. Hirschman, one of the twentieth century's most original and provocative thinkers. In this gripping biography, Jeremy Adelman tells the story of a man shaped by modern horrors and hopes, a worldly intellectual who fought for and wrote in defense of the values of tolerance and change. This is the first major account of Hirschman’s remarkable life, and a tale of the twentieth century as seen through the story of an astute and passionate observer. Adelman’s riveting narrative traces how Hirschman’s personal experiences shaped his unique intellectual perspective, and how his enduring legacy is one of hope, open-mindedness, and practical idealism.

Ethnic Politics In Post Soviet Central Asia

Author: Matteo Fumagalli
ISBN: 9780815391999
Size: 24.75 MB
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The Soviet collapse left about seventy million people, one in four former Soviet citizens, stranded outside of the borders of new states where the majority of their ethnic kins lived. To the surprise of many outside observers, the Central Asian region has escaped the conflicts in which many predicted it would descend in the early 1990s. At the same time it has not been violence-free, as the conflict between groups of Uzbeks and Kyrgyz in Osh, Kyrgyzstan in 2010, Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, the on-going war in the Donbass, and the clashes between Armenians and Azeris over Nagorno-Karabakh in the Spring of 2016 have shown. The book explores how, and to what extent, Central Asia's ethnic minorities have adjusted to being "at home abroad" nearly three decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It finds that minority groups have alternated between 'exit' (from the political system), 'loyalty' (participation in it and support for the leadership), and 'voice' (contentious politics). In this book, the case of Uzbek minorities living outside of Uzbekistan serves as a vantage point to reflect on questions of cultural and political loyalties, contentious politics, and the relationship between identity and political action. Uzbeks represent the largest non-Russian minority group in Central Asia. They are compactly settled around Uzbekistan's borders, to this day still contested and often un-demarcated. The relations between Uzbekistan and its neighbours are overall poor, especially with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. For reasons of size, military strength or regional ambitions, the stability of Uzbekistan, and what lies around it, is seen as central to the stability of the whole Central Asian region. The book offers new empirical data and shows that there has been a gradual political, cultural, and economic disenfranchisement of Central Asia's minority groups in states that are ruled by a narrow circle of elites in weak - yet resilient - states, whose legitimacy is increasingly eroded and that in their attempts to boost such legitimacy and authority they promote ethnic nationalism. It will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience, including academics working in the field of minority rights and ethnic politics in the post-Soviet space, contentious politics, identity formation and irredentism, separatism and diasporas.

The Essential Hirschman

Author: Albert O. Hirschman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400848407
Size: 79.18 MB
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The Essential Hirschman brings together some of the finest essays in the social sciences, written by one of the twentieth century's most influential and provocative thinkers. Albert O. Hirschman was a master essayist, one who possessed the rare ability to blend the precision of economics with the elegance of literary imagination. In an age in which our academic disciplines require ever-greater specialization and narrowness, it is rare to encounter an intellectual who can transform how we think about inequality by writing about traffic, or who can slip in a quote from Flaubert to reveal something surprising about taxes. The essays gathered here span an astonishing range of topics and perspectives, including industrialization in Latin America, imagining reform as more than repair, the relationship between imagination and leadership, routine thinking and the marketplace, and the ways our arguments affect democratic life. Throughout, we find humor, unforgettable metaphors, brilliant analysis, and elegance of style that give Hirschman such a singular voice. Featuring an introduction by Jeremy Adelman that places each of these essays in context as well as an insightful afterword by Emma Rothschild and Amartya Sen, The Essential Hirschman is the ideal introduction to Hirschman for a new generation of readers and a must-have collection for anyone seeking his most important writings in one book.

Exit Voice Dynamics And The Collapse Of East Germany

Author: Steven Pfaff
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822387921
Size: 37.22 MB
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Winner of the Social Science History Association President’s Book Award East Germany was the first domino to fall when the Soviet bloc began to collapse in 1989. Its topple was so swift and unusual that it caught many area specialists and social scientists off guard; they failed to recognize the instability of the Communist regime, much less its fatal vulnerability to popular revolt. In this volume, Steven Pfaff identifies the central mechanisms that propelled the extraordinary and surprisingly bloodless revolution within the German Democratic Republic (GDR). By developing a theory of how exit-voice dynamics affect collective action, Pfaff illuminates the processes that spurred mass demonstrations in the GDR, led to a peaceful surrender of power by the hard-line Leninist elite, and hastened German reunification. While most social scientific explanations of collective action posit that the option for citizens to emigrate—or exit—suppresses the organized voice of collective public protest by providing a lower-cost alternative to resistance, Pfaff argues that a different dynamic unfolded in East Germany. The mass exit of many citizens provided a focal point for protesters, igniting the insurgent voice of the revolution. Pfaff mines state and party records, police reports, samizdat, Church documents, and dissident manifestoes for his in-depth analysis not only of the genesis of local protest but also of the broader patterns of exit and voice across the entire GDR. Throughout his inquiry, Pfaff compares the East German rebellion with events occurring during the same period in other communist states, particularly Czechoslovakia, China, Poland, and Hungary. He suggests that a trigger from outside the political system—such as exit—is necessary to initiate popular mobilization against regimes with tightly centralized power and coercive surveillance.

Journey Into Europe

Author: Akbar Ahmed
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815727593
Size: 62.86 MB
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An unprecedented, richly, detailed, and clear-eyed exploration of Islam in European history and civilization Tensions over Islam were escalating in Europe even before 9/11. Since then, repeated episodes of terrorism together with the refugee crisis have dramatically increased the divide between the majority population and Muslim communities, pushing the debate well beyond concerns over language and female dress. Meanwhile, the parallel rise of right-wing, nationalist political parties throughout the continent, often espousing anti-Muslim rhetoric, has shaken the foundation of the European Union to its very core. Many Europeans see Islam as an alien, even barbaric force that threatens to overwhelm them and their societies. Muslims, by contrast, struggle to find a place in Europe in the face of increasing intolerance. In tandem, anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination cause many on the continent to feel unwelcome in their European homes. Akbar Ahmed, an internationally renowned Islamic scholar, traveled across Europe over the course of four years with his team of researchers and interviewed Muslims and non-Muslims from all walks of life to investigate questions of Islam, immigration, and identity. They spoke with some of Europe’s most prominent figures, including presidents and prime ministers, archbishops, chief rabbis, grand muftis, heads of right-wing parties, and everyday Europeans from a variety of backgrounds. Their findings reveal a story of the place of Islam in European history and civilization that is more interwoven and complex than the reader might imagine, while exposing both the misunderstandings and the opportunities for Europe and its Muslim communities to improve their relationship. Along with an analysis of what has gone wrong and why, this urgent study, the fourth in a quartet examining relations between the West and the Muslim world, features recommendations for promoting integration and pluralism in the twenty-first century.