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Expecting Pears From An Elm Tree

Author: Erick D. Langer
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822390914
Size: 10.13 MB
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Missions played a vital role in frontier development in Latin America throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They were key to the penetration of national societies into the regions and indigenous lands that the nascent republics claimed as their jurisdictions. In Expecting Pears from an Elm Tree, Erick D. Langer examines one of the most important Catholic mission systems in republican-era Latin America, the Franciscan missions among the Chiriguano Indians in southeastern Bolivia. Using that mission system as a model for understanding the relationship between indigenous peoples and missionaries in the post-independence period, Langer explains how the missions changed over their lifespan and how power shifted between indigenous leaders and the missionaries in an ongoing process of negotiation. Expecting Pears from an Elm Tree is based on twenty years of research, including visits to the sites of nearly every mission discussed and interviews with descendants of mission Indians, Indian chiefs, Franciscan friars, mestizo settlers, and teachers. Langer chronicles how, beginning in the 1840s, the establishment of missions fundamentally changed the relationship between the Chiriguano villages and national society. He looks at the Franciscan missionaries’ motives, their visions of ideal missions, and the realities they faced. He also examines mission life from the Chiriguano point of view, considering their reasons for joining missions and their resistance to conversion, as well as the interrelated issues of Indian acculturation and the development of the mission economy, particularly in light of the relatively high rates of Indian mortality and outmigration. Expanding his focus, Langer delves into the complex interplay of Indians, missionaries, frontier society, and the national government until the last remaining missions were secularized in 1949. He concludes with a comparative analysis between colonial and republican-era missions throughout Latin America.

The Chaco War

Author: Bridget Maria Chesterton
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474248896
Size: 77.41 MB
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In 1932 Bolivia and Paraguay went to war over the Chaco region in South America. The war lasted three years and approximately 52,000 Bolivians and Paraguayans died. Moving beyond the battlefields of the Chaco War, this volume highlights the forgotten narratives of the war. Studying the environmental, ethnic, and social realities of the war in both Bolivia and Paraguay, the contributors examine the conflict that took place between 1932 and 1936 and explore its relationship with and impact on nationalism, activism and modernity. Beginning with an overview of the war, the book goes on to explore many new approaches to the conflict, and the contributors address topics such as the environmental challenges faced by the forces involved, the role of indigenous peoples, the impact of oil nationalism and the conflict's aftermath. This is a volume that will be of interest to anyone working on modern Latin America and the relationship between war and society.

Deepening Local Democracy In Latin America

Author: Benjamin Goldfrank
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271074515
Size: 18.40 MB
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The resurgence of the Left in Latin America over the past decade has been so notable that it has been called “the Pink Tide.” In recent years, regimes with leftist leaders have risen to power in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Uruguay, and Venezuela. What does this trend portend for the deepening of democracy in the region? Benjamin Goldfrank has been studying the development of participatory democracy in Latin America for many years, and this book represents the culmination of his empirical investigations in Brazil, Uruguay, and Venezuela. In order to understand why participatory democracy has succeeded better in some countries than in others, he examines the efforts in urban areas that have been undertaken in the cities of Porto Alegre, Montevideo, and Caracas. His findings suggest that success is related, most crucially, to how nationally centralized political authority is and how strongly institutionalized the opposition parties are in the local arenas.

Guatemala S Catholic Revolution

Author: Bonar L. Hernández Sandoval
Publisher: University of Notre Dame Pess
ISBN: 0268104441
Size: 12.42 MB
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Guatemala’s Catholic Revolution is an account of the resurgence of Guatemalan Catholicism during the twentieth century. By the late 1960s, an increasing number of Mayan peasants had emerged as religious and social leaders in rural Guatemala. They assumed central roles within the Catholic Church: teaching the catechism, preaching the Gospel, and promoting Church-directed social projects. Influenced by their daily religious and social realities, the development initiatives of the Cold War, and the Second Vatican Council (1962–65), they became part of Latin America’s burgeoning progressive Catholic spirit. Hernández Sandoval examines the origins of this progressive trajectory in his fascinating new book. After researching previously untapped church archives in Guatemala and Vatican City, as well as mission records found in the United States, Hernández Sandoval analyzes popular visions of the Church, the interaction between indigenous Mayan communities and clerics, and the connection between religious and socioeconomic change. Beginning in the 1920s and 1930s, the Guatemalan Catholic Church began to resurface as an institutional force after being greatly diminished by the anticlerical reforms of the nineteenth century. This revival, fueled by papal power, an increase in church-sponsored lay organizations, and the immigration of missionaries from the United States, prompted seismic changes within the rural church by the 1950s. The projects begun and developed by the missionaries with the support of Mayan parishioners, originally meant to expand sacramentalism, eventually became part of a national and international program of development that uplifted underdeveloped rural communities. Thus, by the end of the 1960s, these rural Catholic communities had become part of a “Catholic revolution,” a reformist, or progressive, trajectory whose proponents promoted rural development and the formation of a new generation of Mayan community leaders. This book will be of special interest to scholars of transnational Catholicism, popular religion, and religion and society during the Cold War in Latin America.

Pames Jonaces And Franciscans In The Sierra Gorda

Author: Robert H. Jackson
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443864889
Size: 62.65 MB
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In the mid-sixteenth century, the Spanish faced a prolonged conflict in Mexico known as the Chichimeca War (1550–1600) beyond the porous cultural frontier between the sedentary indigenous populations of central Mexico and the bands of nomadic hunters and gatherers collectively known by the derogatory Náhuatl term “Chichimeca” or “Mecos”. Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian missionaries developed methods and an organizational scheme to evangelize the sedentary populations of central Mexico, but this did not work well beyond the Chichimeca frontier where missions often proved to be ephemeral. Moreover, the missionaries uncovered evidence of the persistence of pre-Hispanic religious beliefs as they also did in central Mexico. In many cases, the missionaries focused their attention on the colonies of sedentary indigenous peoples established beyond the frontier. This study outlines efforts over more than 200 years to evangelize the Pames and Jonaces in a huge territory known as the Sierra Gorda that covered parts of the modern states of Querétaro, Hidalgo, Estado de Mexico, Guanajuato, and San Luis Potosi, and involved Franciscan, Dominican, Augustinian, and Jesuit missionaries. It documents the last missionary impulse spurred by the project of José de Escandón and a new group of Franciscan missionaries to get the Pames and Jonaces to adopt a sedentary lifestyle after two centuries of failed efforts.

Hemispheric Indigeneities

Author: Miléna Santoro
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 1496208676
Size: 40.66 MB
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Hemispheric Indigeneities is a critical anthology that brings together indigenous and nonindigenous scholars specializing in the Andes, Mesoamerica, and Canada. The overarching theme is the changing understanding of indigeneity from first contact to the contemporary period in three of the world's major regions of indigenous peoples. Although the terms indio, indigène, and indian only exist (in Spanish, French, and English, respectively) because of European conquest and colonization, indigenous peoples have appropriated or changed this terminology in ways that reflect their shifting self-identifications and aspirations. As the essays in this volume demonstrate, this process constantly transformed the relation of Native peoples in the Americas to other peoples and the state. This volume's presentation of various factors--geographical, temporal, and cross-cultural--provide illuminating contributions to the burgeoning field of hemispheric indigenous studies. Hemispheric Indigeneities explores indigenous agency and shows that what it means to be indigenous was and is mutable. It also demonstrates that self-identification evolves in response to the relationship between indigenous peoples and the state. The contributors analyze the conceptions of what indigeneity meant, means today, or could come to mean tomorrow.


Author: United States. Bureau of Entomology
Size: 61.98 MB
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