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Extended Defects In Semiconductors

Author: D. B. Holt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463594
Size: 20.69 MB
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The elucidation of the effects of structurally extended defects on electronic properties of materials is especially important in view of the current advances in electronic device development that involve defect control and engineering at the nanometer level. This book surveys the properties, effects, roles and characterization of extended defects in semiconductors. The basic properties of extended defects (dislocations, stacking faults, grain boundaries, and precipitates) are outlined, and their effect on the electronic properties of semiconductors, their role in semiconductor devices, and techniques for their characterization are discussed. These topics are among the central issues in the investigation and applications of semiconductors and in the operation of semiconductor devices. The authors preface their treatment with an introduction to semiconductor materials and conclude with a chapter on point defect maldistributions. This text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, and for those studying semiconductor physics.

Cdte And Related Compounds Physics Defects Hetero And Nano Structures Crystal Growth Surfaces And Applications

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080914589
Size: 70.69 MB
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Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful. Detailed coverage of the main topics associated with the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT Review of the CdTe recent developments Fundamental background of many topics clearly introduced and exposed

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides For The Next Generation Of Electronics And Functional Devices

Author: Serge Zhuiykov
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 1782422242
Size: 44.90 MB
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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Point And Extended Defects In Semiconductors

Author: Giorgio Benedek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468457098
Size: 56.71 MB
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The systematic study of defects in semiconductors began in the early fifties. FrQm that time on many questions about the defect structure and properties have been an swered, but many others are still a matter of investigation and discussion. Moreover, during these years new problems arose in connection with the identification and char acterization of defects, their role in determining transport and optical properties of semiconductor materials and devices, as well as from the technology of the ever in creasing scale of integration. This book presents to the reader a view into both basic concepts of defect physics and recent developments of high resolution experimental techniques. The book does not aim at an exhaustive presentation of modern defect physics; rather it gathers a number of topics which represent the present-time research in this field. The volume collects the contributions to the Advanced Research Workshop "Point, Extended and Surface Defects in Semiconductors" held at the Ettore Majo rana Centre at Erice (Italy) from 2 to 7 November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Materials Science and Technology. The workshop has brought together scientists from thirteen countries. Most participants are currently working on defect problems in either silicon submicron technology or in quantum wells and superlattices, where point defects, dislocations, interfaces and surfaces are closely packed together.

Extended Defects In Germanium

Author: Cor Claeys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540856145
Size: 18.43 MB
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The aim is to give an overview of the physics of extended defects in Germanium, i.e. dislocations (line defects), grain boundaries, stacking faults, twins and {311} defects (two-dimensional defects) and precipitates, bubbles, etc. The first part covers fundamentals, describing the crystallographic structure and other physical and electrical properties, mainly of dislocations. Since dislocations are essential for the plastic deformation of Germanium, methods for analysis and imaging of dislocations and to evaluate their structure are described. Attention is given to the electrical and optical properties, which are important for devices made in dislocated Ge. The second part treats the creation of extended defects during wafer and device processing. Issues are addressed such as defect formation during ion implantation, necessary to create junctions, which are an essential part in every device type. Extended defects are also created during the deposition of thin or thick epitaxial layers on other substrates, which are important for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. In brief, the book is intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

Nitride Semiconductors

Author: Pierre Ruterana
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527403875
Size: 60.99 MB
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Semiconductor components based on silicon have been used in a wide range of applications for some time now. These elemental semiconductors are now well researched and technologically well developed. In the meantime the focus has switched to a new group of materials: ceramic semiconductors based on nitrides are currently the subject of research due to their optical and electronic characteristics. They open up new industrial possibilities in the field of photosensors, as light sources or as electronic components. This collection of review articles provides a systematic and in-depth overview of the topic, on both a high and current level. It offers information on the physical basics as well as the latest results in a compact yet comprehensive manner. The contributions cover the physical processes involved in manufacture, from semiconductor growth, via their atomic structures and the related characteristics right up to future industrial applications. A highly pertinent book for anyone working in applied materials research or the semiconductor industry.

Iii Nitride Semiconductors Electrical Structural And Defects Properties

Author: M.O. Manasreh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080534442
Size: 56.35 MB
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Research advances in III-nitride semiconductor materials and device have led to an exponential increase in activity directed towards electronic and optoelectronic applications. There is also great scientific interest in this class of materials because they appear to form the first semiconductor system in which extended defects do not severely affect the optical properties of devices. The volume consists of chapters written by a number of leading researchers in nitride materials and device technology with the emphasis on the dopants incorporations, impurities identifications, defects engineering, defects characterization, ion implantation, irradiation-induced defects, residual stress, structural defects and phonon confinement. This unique volume provides a comprehensive review and introduction of defects and structural properties of GaN and related compounds for newcomers to the field and stimulus to further advances for experienced researchers. Given the current level of interest and research activity directed towards nitride materials and devices, the publication of the volume is particularly timely. Early pioneering work by Pankove and co-workers in the 1970s yielded a metal-insulator-semiconductor GaN light-emitting diode (LED), but the difficulty of producing p-type GaN precluded much further effort. The current level of activity in nitride semiconductors was inspired largely by the results of Akasaki and co-workers and of Nakamura and co-workers in the late 1980s and early 1990s in the development of p-type doping in GaN and the demonstration of nitride-based LEDs at visible wavelengths. These advances were followed by the successful fabrication and commercialization of nitride blue laser diodes by Nakamura et al at Nichia. The chapters contained in this volume constitutes a mere sampling of the broad range of research on nitride semiconductor materials and defect issues currently being pursued in academic, government, and industrial laboratories worldwide.

Defect Control In Semiconductors

Author: K. Sumino
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444600647
Size: 56.32 MB
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Defect control in semiconductors is a key technology for realizing the ultimate possibilities of modern electronics. The basis of such control lies in an integrated knowledge of a variety of defect properties. From this viewpoint, the volume discusses defect-related problems in connection with defect control in semiconducting materials, such as silicon, III-V, II-VI compounds, organic semiconductors, heterostructure, etc. The conference brought together scientists in the field of fundamental research and engineers involved in application related to electronic devices in order to promote future research activity in both fields and establish a fundamental knowledge of defect control. The main emphasis of the 254 papers presented in this volume is on the control of the concentration, distribution, structural and electronic states of any types of defects including impurities as well as control of the electrical, optical and other activities of defects. Due to the extensive length of the contents, only the number of papers presented per session is listed below.

Characterization Of Semiconductor Heterostructures And Nanostructures

Author: Giovanni Agostini
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 044459549X
Size: 32.40 MB
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Characterization of Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures is structured so that each chapter is devoted to a specific characterization technique used in the understanding of the properties (structural, physical, chemical, electrical etc..) of semiconductor quantum wells and superlattices. An additional chapter is devoted to ab initio modeling. The book has two basic aims. The first is educational, providing the basic concepts of each of the selected techniques with an approach understandable by advanced students in Physics, Chemistry, Material Science, Engineering, Nanotechnology. The second aim is to provide a selected set of examples from the recent literature of the TOP results obtained with the specific technique in understanding the properties of semiconductor heterostructures and nanostructures. Each chapter has this double structure: the first part devoted to explain the basic concepts, and the second to the discussion of the most peculiar and innovative examples. The topic of quantum wells, wires and dots should be seen as a pretext of applying top level characterization techniques in understanding the structural, electronic etc properties of matter at the nanometer (and even sub-nanometer) scale. In this respect it is an essential reference in the much broader, and extremely hot, field of Nanotechnology. Comprehensive collection of the most powerful characterization techniques for semiconductors heterostructures and nanostructures Most of the chapters are authored by scientists that are world-wide among the top-ten in publication ranking of the specific field Each chapter starts with a didactic introduction on the technique The second part of each chapters deals with a selection of top examples highlighting the power of the specific technique to analyse the properties of semiconductors heterostructures and nanostructures

Handbook Of Nitride Semiconductors And Devices Materials Properties Physics And Growth

Author: Hadis Morkoç
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527628460
Size: 45.43 MB
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The three volumes of this handbook treat the fundamentals, technology and nanotechnology of nitride semiconductors with an extraordinary clarity and depth. They present all the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering together with an extensive reference section. Volume 1 deals with the properties and growth of GaN. The deposition methods considered are: hydride VPE, organometallic CVD, MBE, and liquid/high pressure growth. Additionally, extended defects and their electrical nature, point defects, and doping are reviewed.