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Fault Zone Properties And Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Author: Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080922461
Size: 26.23 MB
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The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Treatise On Geophysics

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538038
Size: 24.89 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole

Fault Zone Dynamic Processes

Author: Marion Y. Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119156912
Size: 48.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Earthquakes are some of the most dynamic features of the Earth. This multidisciplinary volume presents an overview of earthquake processes and properties including the physics of dynamic faulting, fault fabric and mechanics, physical and chemical properties of fault zones, dynamic rupture processes, and numerical modeling of fault zones during seismic rupture. This volume examines questions such as: • What are the dynamic processes recorded in fault gouge? • What can we learn about rupture dynamics from laboratory experiments? • How do on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? • How do fault zones evolve over time? Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students from across the geosciences interested in the earthquakes processes.

The Physics Of Rock Failure And Earthquakes

Author: Mitiyasu Ohnaka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107030064
Size: 45.66 MB
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"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--

Earthquakes

Author: Rachel Abercrombie
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: 9780875904351
Size: 63.72 MB
Format: PDF
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series. Earthquakes, from the smallest to the largest, release elastic strain energy. Where does this energy go? How much is radiated and how much is expended in other source processes, such as overcoming fault friction? Do large and small earthquakes differ with regard to rupture physics? This book examines such questions and current debates from five vantage points: How we measure earthquake energy Effects of earthquake size and tectonic setting Insights from numerical simulations Geological fault zone research The efficiency of the "earthquake machine" in terms of fault rupture, friction, and seismic phenomena Earthquakes: Radiated Energy and the Physics of Faulting is the first book to present a systematic approach to understanding the energy changes associated with earthquakes. Solid Earth scientists, researchers and students-especially those who work in seismology, tectonophysics, rock mechanics and geodesy-will find this book an essential resource, now and into the future.

Seismic Tomography

Author: Guust Nolet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027725219
Size: 25.63 MB
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Methods to eonstruet images of an objeet from "projeetions" of x-rays, ultrasound or eleetromagnetie waves have found wide applieations in eleetron mieroseopy, diagnostie medicine and radio astronomy. Projeetions are measurable quantities that are a funetiona- usually involving a line integral - of physieal properties of an objeet. Convolutional methods, or iterative algorithms to solve large systems of linear equations are used to reeonstruet the objeet. In prineiple, there is no reasan why similar image reeonstruetions ean not be made with seismie waves. In praetiee, seismic tomography meets with a number of diffieulties, and it is not until the last deeade that imaging of transmitted seismie waves has found applicatian in the Earth sciences. The most important differenee between global seismie tomography and mare eonventional applieations in the laboratory is the faet that the seismologist is eonfronted with the lack of anything resembling a well-eontrolled experimental set-up. Apart from a few nuelear tests, it is not in our power to locate or time seismie events. Apart from a few seabattom seismographs, our sensors are located on land -and even there the availability of data depends on eultural and politieal factors. Even in exploratian seismics, praetieal faetors such as the east of an experiment put strong limitations on the eompleteness of the data set.