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First International Meeting On Microbial Phosphate Solubilization

Author: E. Velazquez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402057652
Size: 69.75 MB
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In 2002, sixty international specialists met to discuss problems of high P-unavailability as a soil nutrient for crops, and the hazards of increased phosphate input to aquatic habitats from industrial and mining activities, sewage disposal, detergents, and other sources. Among the presentations were updated solutions to enhance P-uptake by plants, bioremediation potential in the rehabilitation of ecosystems, taxonomic characterization interactions with mycorrizae, the physiological and molecular basis of PSM, and more.

Role Of Rhizospheric Microbes In Soil

Author: Vijay Singh Meena
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811300445
Size: 12.26 MB
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In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other’s survival and also provide for sustenance in stressful environment. Agro-ecosystems of many regions around the globe are affected by multi-stress. Major limiting factors affecting the agricultural productivity worldwide are environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield they introduce devastating impact on plant growth as well. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic association with the microbes in the rhizosphere. Naturally existing plant-microbe interaction facilitates survival of plants under these stressful conditions. Rhizosphere consists of many groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes which assist plants in coping with multiple stresses and in plant growth as well. These microbes help in stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food security problems. The proposed book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidates various mechanisms in rhizosphere of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity. The book discusses rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Both volumes of the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement, contains chapters which cover a broad overview of plant growth promoting activities of microbes. This proposed book also highlights the contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc-solubilizing microbes from rhizospheric soil to develop efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance the food and nutritional security. With the given content and layout the proposed book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture. It will be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. Timely, this edited and research book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material from basic to advance findings on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability.

Plant Microbe Interactions In Agro Ecological Perspectives

Author: Dhananjaya Pratap Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811065934
Size: 46.59 MB
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This book puts an updated account on functional aspects of multiphasic microbial interactions within and between plants and their ecosystem. Multipronged interaction in the soil microbial communities with the plants constitute a relay of mechanisms that make profound changes in plant and its micro-environment in the rhizopshere at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In agro-ecological perspectives, such interactions are known to recycle nutrients and regulate signalling molecules, phytohormones and other small molecules that help plant growth and development. Such aspects are described deeply in this book taking examples from various crop plants and microbial systems. Authors described the most advantageous prospects of plant-microbe interaction in terms of inoculation of beneficial microorganisms (microbial inoculants) with the plants in which microbes proliferate in the root rhizosphere system and benefit plants' with definite functions like fixation of nitrogen, solubilization and mobilization of P, K, Zn and production of phytohormones. The subject of this book and the content presented herein has great relevance to the agro-ecological sustainability of crop plants with the help of microbial interactions. The chapters presented focus on defining and assessing the impact of beneficial microbial interactions on different soils, crops and abiotic conditions. This volume entails about exploiting beneficial microbial interactions to help plants under abiotic conditions, microbe-mediated induced systemic tolerance, role of mycorrhizal interactions in improving plant tolerance against stresses, PGPR as nutrient mobilizers, phytostimulants, antagonists and biocontrol agents, plant interactions with Trichoderma and other bioagents for sustainable intensification in agriculture, cyanobacteria as PGPRs, plant microbiome for crop management and phytoremediation and rhizoremediation using microbial communities. The overall content entrust advanced knowledge and applicability of diversified biotechnological, techno-commercial and agro-ecological aspects of microbial interactions and inoculants as inputs, which upon inoculation with crop plants benefit them in multiple ways.

Microorganisms In Sustainable Agriculture And Biotechnology

Author: Tulasi Satyanarayana
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400722141
Size: 45.88 MB
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This review of recent developments in our understanding of the role of microbes in sustainable agriculture and biotechnology covers a research area with enormous untapped potential. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other agricultural inputs derived from fossil fuels have increased agricultural production, yet growing awareness and concern over their adverse effects on soil productivity and environmental quality cannot be ignored. The high cost of these products, the difficulties of meeting demand for them, and their harmful environmental legacy have encouraged scientists to develop alternative strategies to raise productivity, with microbes playing a central role in these efforts. One application is the use of soil microbes as bioinoculants for supplying nutrients and/or stimulating plant growth. Some rhizospheric microbes are known to synthesize plant growth-promoters, siderophores and antibiotics, as well as aiding phosphorous uptake. The last 40 years have seen rapid strides made in our appreciation of the diversity of environmental microbes and their possible benefits to sustainable agriculture and production. The advent of powerful new methodologies in microbial genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology has only quickened the pace of developments. The vital part played by microbes in sustaining our planet’s ecosystems only adds urgency to this enquiry. Culture-dependent microbes already contribute much to human life, yet the latent potential of vast numbers of uncultured—and thus untouched—microbes, is enormous. Culture-independent metagenomic approaches employed in a variety of natural habitats have alerted us to the sheer diversity of these microbes, and resulted in the characterization of novel genes and gene products. Several new antibiotics and biocatalysts have been discovered among environmental genomes and some products have already been commercialized. Meanwhile, dozens of industrial products currently formulated in large quantities from petrochemicals, such as ethanol, butanol, organic acids, and amino acids, are equally obtainable through microbial fermentation. Edited by a trio of recognized authorities on the subject, this survey of a fast-moving field—with so many benefits within reach—will be required reading for all those investigating ways to harness the power of microorganisms in making both agriculture and biotechnology more sustainable.

Endophytes Biology And Biotechnology

Author: Dinesh K. Maheshwari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319665413
Size: 38.55 MB
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This book discusses the latest developments in our understanding of microbial endophytes, their ecology, diversity and potential biotechnological applications. It covers all the latest advances concerning the endophytic interaction of microorganisms in a wide array of plants, reported on by experts from the entire globe. The diverse microbial community, which consists of archaeal, bacterial, fungal and protistic taxa, can be found in all plants. The endophytic lifecycle reveals how microorganisms play essential roles in plant growth, fitness and diversification. Diversity is an integral component of ecology. In soil ecology, below-ground interactions of plant and microorganisms are accomplished by endophytes, which reside in the plant’s internal tissues. The microbial world in general and endophytes in particular reflect a unique degree of genetic and functional (metabolic) diversity. Currently, significant attention is being paid to endophytic microorganisms, as their repertoire of cells and metabolites hold immense potential with regard to biotechnological applications for sustainable development. The diversity of bacterial endophytes guarantees that there are endophytes capable of forming compatible associations with all agronomically important plants, including monocots and dicots. The study of endophytes’ diverse nature in connection with biodiesel, medicinal and agriculturally important crop can lead to a better understanding of applicable facets. The topics in this dynamic field of study are so diverse and vast. This volume will benefit all botanists, microbiologists, ecologists, plant pathologists, physiologists, agronomists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists and NGOs working to protect species and prevent the loss of biologically significant genetic material.

Nutrient Use Efficiency From Basics To Advances

Author: Amitava Rakshit
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132221699
Size: 50.42 MB
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This book addresses in detail multifaceted approaches to boosting nutrient use efficiency (NUE) that are modified by plant interactions with environmental variables and combine physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic aspects. Conveying an in-depth understanding of the topic will spark the development of new cultivars and strains to induce NUE, coupled with best management practices that will immensely benefit agricultural systems, safeguarding their soil, water, and air quality. Written by recognized experts in the field, the book is intended to provide students, scientists and policymakers with essential insights into holistic approaches to NUE, as well as an overview of some successful case studies. In the present understanding of agriculture, NUE represents a question of process optimization in response to the increasing fragility of our natural resources base and threats to food grain security across the globe. Further improving nutrient use efficiency is a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and preventing environmental contamination. The nutrients most commonly limiting plant growth are N, P, K, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends on the ability to efficiently take up the nutrient from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant and the environment. A number of approaches can help us to understand NUE as a whole. One involves adopting best crop management practices that take into account root-induced rhizosphere processes, which play a pivotal role in controlling nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New technologies, from basic tools like leaf color charts to sophisticated sensor-based systems and laser land leveling, can reduce the dependency on laboratory assistance and manual labor. Another approach concerns the development of crop plants through genetic manipulations that allow them to take up and assimilate nutrients more efficiently, as well as identifying processes of plant responses to nutrient deficiency stress and exploring natural genetic variation. Though only recently introduced, the ability of microbial inoculants to induce NUE is gaining in importance, as the loss, immobilization, release and availability of nutrients are mediated by soil microbial processes.

Rhizosphere Achievements And Challenges

Author: Yves Dessaux
Publisher: Springer
ISBN:
Size: 71.43 MB
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Described by Hiltner over a century ago (1904), the rhizosphere is defined as the fraction of soil influenced by plant root activities. This dynamic, complex interface where soil, plant roots and microbes interact is a major hotspot of microbial activity, where numerous subtle molecular processes, as well as multiple feedback events take place, Rhizosphere investigations at the microscopic scale have driven spectacular academic advances in the fields of soil sciences or plant-microbe interactions. They bear promises in terms of environmentally-friendly procedures such as bioremediation or ecological engineering. The long recognized role of rhizosphere processes in plant nutrition and health, and more generally in plant adaptation to stress conditions, is now becoming central for designing sustainable management practices of agricultural and forest ecosystems. The rhizosphere, however, must also be considered and investigated at a much larger scale than its own, especially as a location where important steps of both carbon and nitrogen cycles occur, with obvious links with global changes. Major advances in understanding the rhizosphere have been achieved over the last two decades. Combined expertise in plant biology, microbial ecology and soil sciences and design of research strategies including the latest innovative methods in these fields opens exciting prospects for the future.

Molekulare Infektionsbiologie

Author: Jörg Hacker
Publisher: Springer Spektrum
ISBN: 9783642394560
Size: 47.59 MB
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Was passiert im Körper, wenn ein Mensch beispielsweise an Grippe, Malaria oder Lungenentzündung erkrankt? Wie interagieren Bakterien und Viren, Pilze und Parasiten auf molekularer Ebene mit den Zellen des Körpers? Wie wirken die Erreger in den jeweiligen Zellen, wo verstecken sie sich, welche zellulären und molekularen Prozesse werden von diesen gestört oder lahmgelegt? Jörg Hacker und Jürgen Heesemann sowie ihr Autorenteam stellen in diesem Fachbuch die vielfältigen und spannenden Interaktionen zwischen pathogenen Mikroorganismen und ihren Wirtszellen dar. Sie beschreiben die medizinisch bedeutendsten Krankheitserreger, die Infektionen, die sie verursachen und die unspezifischen und spezifischen Mittel, mit denen der Wirt sich dagegen wehren kann. Ausführlich diskutieren sie die Pathogenitätsfaktoren, Proteinsekretionssysteme und die mikrobielle Oberflächenvariation. Weiterhin gehen sie auf die evolutionäre und die zelluläre Infektionsbiologie ein. Molekulare Aspekte der Diagnostik, der Therapie, der Impfstoffentwicklung werden ebenso dargestellt wie die modernen Methoden, mit denen Infektionsbiologen heute arbeiten.