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Fluency In Reading

Author: Zvia Breznitz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113563744X
Size: 67.61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is the first book to examine in-depth the crucial role of the speed of information processing in the brain in determining reading fluency in both normal and dyslexic readers. Part I explains fluency in reading from both traditional and modern perspectives. Fluency has historically been viewed as the outcome of other reading-related factors and has often been seen as a convenient measure of reading skills. This book, however, argues that fluency has a strong impact on other aspects of reading and plays a central role in the entire reading process. Part II deals with the determinants of reading fluency. Chief among these is the speed of information processing in the brain. Using both behavioral and electrophysiological evidence, the book systematically examines the features of processing speed in the various brain systems involved in reading: visual-orthographic, auditory-phonological, and semantic and shows how speed of processing affects fluency in reading. Part III deals with the complex issues of cross-modal integration and specifically with the need for effective synchronization of the brain processes involved in reading. It puts forward the Synchronization Hypothesis and discusses the role of the Asynchrony Phenomenon as a major factor in dyslexia. Finally, it summarizes research on manipulating reading rate by means of the Acceleration method, providing evidence for a possible intervention aimed at reducing Asynchrony. Key features of this outstanding new book include: *Expanded View of Fluency. Reading fluency is seen as both a dependent and an independent Variable. Currently available books focus on reading rate solely as the outcome of other factors whereas this volume stresses that it is both an outcome and a cause. *Information Processing Focus. Fluency itself is determined to a large extent by a more general factor, namely, speed of processing in the brain. The book presents wide-ranging evidence for individual differences in speed of processing across many subpopulations. *Brain Synchronization Focus. The book posits a new theory arguing that effective reading requires synchronization of the different brain systems: visual orthographic, auditory-phonological, and semantic. *Research-Based Interventions. Interventions to enhance fluency and, thereby, reading skills in general are presented in detail. *Author Expertise. Zvia Breznitz is Head of the Department of Learning Disabilities and Director of the Laboratory for Neurocognitive Research at Haifa University in Israel, where she has been researching this topic for over a decade. This book is appropriate for researchers and advanced students in reading, dyslexia, learning disabilities, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology.

Reading Fluency

Author: Asaid Khateb
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331930478X
Size: 45.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The book is dedicated to the blessed memory of Prof. Zvia Breznitz, whose groundbreaking research has made a tremendous impact on the understanding of fluency in reading. The book presents a multidimensional perspective of recent research and reviews on fluency in reading. The first part presents recent brain-imaging findings from studies into the neurobiological basis of reading, as well as cognitive and language studies exploring the underlying factors of fluency in reading and its development. The second part comprises reviews of intervention studies that address reading ability, and in particular, fluency in reading. The book provides a unique multilingual perspective on reading research by including studies of readers of different orthographies and speakers of different languages. Both scientists exploring the different aspects of reading and language, and clinicians of reading intervention will find this book not only of great interest but extremely useful in its clear and in-depth presentation of current reading research.

Oscillatory Temporal Sampling And Developmental Dyslexia Towards An Over Arching Theoretical Framework

Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889194396
Size: 14.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Children with developmental dyslexia fail to acquire efficient reading and spelling skills despite adequate tuition and an absence of overt sensory and/ or neural deficits. Learning to read and spell requires linguistic skills, auditory skills and visual skills. Oscillatory 'temporal sampling' theory links the development of sensory and linguistic processes. The auditory system 'samples' acoustic information at different temporal rates, which for speech processing suggests that temporal information encoded by delta, theta and gamma oscillations is bound together in the final speech percept. Temporal sampling theory proposed a possible deficit in dyslexia in auditory sampling of the speech signal at syllable-relevant rates (< 10 Hz, delta and theta). This would hypothetically affect prosodic development prior to reading and syllable-based parsing, which would affect efficient linguistic skills and consequently reading development across languages. The visual system also samples information in the visuo-spatial field. In theory atypical visual oscillatory sampling could therefore be related to some of the visual features of developmental dyslexia. In this special issue, we bring together visual and auditory sensory processing studies around the general theme of oscillatory temporal sampling. Contributors were encouraged to discuss their findings within a temporal sampling perspective. The resulting studies cover a wide range of sensory processes, with findings both supporting and contradicting the theory. It is also important to note that studies covered a wide range of languages, and that the behavioural manifestations of a sampling impairment may differ both with language and over the course of development. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to see such diverse findings considered within a single theoretical framework, even if at the same time, it is apparent that an over-arching theoretical framework encompassing both visual and auditory deficits in dyslexia is yet to be achieved.

Teaching Students With Dyslexia And Dysgraphia

Author: Virginia Wise Berninger
Publisher: Brookes Pub
ISBN:
Size: 35.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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How can teachers provide effective literacy instruction for students with learning differences, while meeting the needs of all students in the class? Finally, a single accessible textbook answers that question for every K - 12 educator. The only teacher training text to cover the three learning disabilities that require differentiated instruction; dysgraphia, dyslexia, and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), this book prepares educators to teach students with learning differences in explicit, reflective, and intellectually engaging ways. Ginger Berninger, a seasoned researcher and former teacher, partners with 40-year teacher and teacher trainer Beverly Wolf for a one-of-a-kind text that gives readers the best of both worlds: critical insights from scientific studies, and lessons learned from actual teaching experience. Educators will get the research-based guidance they'll need to: organize their classrooms, routines, and lesson plans through differentiated instruction; improve every aspect of students' literacy, including reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills; create a positive learning environment that promotes intellectual engagement; and apply a specific framework for instruction that helps students overcome working memory inefficiencies and fluency problems. Throughout the book, relevant research finding from diverse fields, including genetics, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and education, show teachers the why behind the how. And the extensive instructional guidelines, applicable across school settings and specific curricula, offer innovative approaches to practice that will help teachers successfully meet the needs of individual students. An essential part of every teacher's preparation, this text ensures that educators are ready to deliver effective, individually tailored instruction to students with dysgraphia, dyslexia, and oral and written langauge disabilities.

Developmental Language Disorders

Author: Diane L. Williams
Publisher: Plural Pub Incorporated
ISBN:
Size: 61.50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research on the neurological basis of developmental disorders and the application of this research to the learning process. However, to date, much of this information has been presented at a level that is beyond most students and many clinicians. Williams' new book is deliberately targeted at the clinician and student, and is grounded in the belief that the most effective intervention for developmental disorders is based on an understanding of the underlying neurobiology and neurofunctional basis of the disorder in a clear and accessible form. Here, she focuses on the current knowledge base, neurological development (prenatal, through childhood, to young adulthood), neuroimaging techniques, research on the neurological basis of developmental language disorders, autism, reading (dyslexia), and genetic conditions associated with mental retardation. Most importantly, she focuses on what is currently known about the effects of the environment on brain organization and learning, and the translation of neurological findings to the design of intervention for disordered language.

The Sage Handbook Of Dyslexia

Author: Gavin Reid
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1848600372
Size: 23.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The SAGE Handbook of Dyslexia is a comprehensive overview of a complex field. It is a rich, critical assessment of past and present theory and current research, which also looks to the future. The editors have brought together key figures from the international academic world - both researchers and practitioners - to examine the relationships between theoretical paradigms, research and practice, and to map new areas of research. The book has 5 main sections: - neurological/genetic perspectives - cognitive and learning perspectives - educational influences - beyond school - international perspectives.

Fluent Forever

Author: Gabriel Wyner
Publisher: Harmony
ISBN: 038534810X
Size: 54.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The ultimate rapid language-learning guide! For those who’ve despaired of ever learning a foreign language, here, finally, is a book that will make the words stick. At thirty years old, Gabriel Wyner speaks six languages fluently. He didn’t learn them in school -- who does? -- rather, he learned them in the past few years, working on his own and practicing on the subway, using simple techniques and free online resources. In Fluent Forever Wyner reveals what he’s discovered. The greatest challenge to learning a foreign language is the challenge of memory; there are just too many words and too many rules. For every new word we learn, we seem to forget two old ones, and as a result, fluency can seem out of reach. Fluent Forever tackles this challenge head-on. With empathy for the language-challenged and abundant humor, Wyner deconstructs the learning process, revealing how to build a foreign language in your mind from the ground up. Starting with pronunciation, you’ll learn how to rewire your ears and turn foreign sounds into familiar sounds. You'll retrain your tongue to produce those sounds accurately, using tricks from opera singers and actors. Next, you'll begin to tackle words, and connect sounds and spellings to imagery, rather than translations, which will enable you to think in a foreign language. And with the help of sophisticated spaced-repetition techniques, you'll be able to memorize hundreds of words a month in minutes every day. Soon, you'll gain the ability to learn grammar and more difficult abstract words--without the tedious drills and exercises of language classes and grammar books. This is brain hacking at its most exciting, taking what we know about neuroscience and linguistics and using it to create the most efficient and enjoyable way to learn a foreign language in the spare minutes of your day.

Process Driven Soa

Author: Carsten Hentrich
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439889309
Size: 67.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Process-Driven SOA: Patterns for Aligning Business and IT supplies detailed guidance on how to design and build software architectures that follow the principles of business-IT alignment. It illustrates the design process using proven patterns that address complex business/technical scenarios, where integrated concepts of service-oriented architecture (SOA), Business Process Management (BPM), and Event-Driven Architecture (EDA) are required. The book demonstrates that SOA is not limited to technical issues but instead, is a holistic challenge where aspects of SOA, EDA, and BPM must be addressed together. An ideal guide for SOA solution architects, designers, developers, managers, and students about to enter the field, the book: Provides an accessible introduction to basic and more advanced concepts in process-driven SOA Illustrates how to manage the complexities of business aligned IT architectures with detailed examples and industry cases Outlines a step-by-step design process using proven patterns to address complex business/ technical scenarios Integrates SOA, BPM, and EDA into practical patterns promoting SOA 2.0 Describing how to synchronize parallel enterprise processes, the authors explain how to cope with the architectural and design decisions you are likely to encounter when designing and implementing process-driven SOA systems. The decisions are described in the form of software patterns to provide you with a practical guideline for addressing key problems using time-tested solutions.