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Natural Gas Conversion V

Author: A. Parmaliana
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080537306
Size: 23.74 MB
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On January 1988, the ascertained and economically accessible reserves of Natural Gas (NG) amounted to over 144,000 billion cubic meters worldwide, corresponding to 124 billion tons of oil equivalents (comparable with the liquid oil reserves, which are estimated to be 138 billion TOE). It is hypothesized that the volume of NG reserve will continue to grow at the same rate of the last decade. Forecasts on production indicate a potential increase from about 2,000 billion cubic meters in 1990 to not more than 3,300 billion cubic meters in 2010, even in a high economic development scenario. NG consumption represents only one half of oil: 1.9 billion TOE/y as compared to 3.5 of oil. Consequently, in the future gas will exceed oil as a carbon atom source. In the future the potential for getting energetic vectors or petrochemicals from NG will continue to grow. The topics covered in Natural Gas Conversion V reflect the large global R&D effort to look for new and economic ways of NG exploitation. These range from the direct conversion of methane and light paraffins to the indirect conversion through synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals. Particularly underlined and visible are the technologies already commercially viable. These proceedings prove that mature and technologically feasible processes for natural gas conversion are already available and that new and improved catalytic approaches are currently developing, the validity and feasibility of which will soon be documented. This is an exciting area of modern catalysis, which will certainly open novel and rewarding perspectives for the chemical, energy and petrochemical industries.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking V

Author: M.L. Occelli
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531717
Size: 76.43 MB
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Catalyst production for the transformation of crudes into gasoline and other fuel products is a billion dollar/year business and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) represent almost half of the refinery catalyst market. During the cracking reactions, the FCC surface is contaminated by metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by coke deposition. As a result, the catalyst activity and product selectivity is reduced to unacceptable levels thus forcing refiners to replace part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC inventory with fresh FCC to compensate for losses in catalyst performance. About 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used worldwide in over 200 fluid cracking catalyst units (FCCUs). It is for these reasons that refiners' interest in FCC research has remained high through the years almost independantly, of crude oil prices. However, recent oil company mergers and the dissolution of research laboratories, have drastically decreased the number of researchers involved in petroleum refining research projects; as a result the emphasis of research has shifted from new materials to process improvements and this trend is clearly reflected in the type of papers contained in this volume. Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential in the understanding of catalyst performance and several chapters in the book describe the use of 27Al, 29Si and 13C NMR to study variation in FCC acidity during aging and coke deposition. In addition several chapters have been dedicated to the modeling of FCC deactivation, and to the understanding of contact times on FCC performance. Refiners efforts to conform with environmental regulations are reflected in chapters dealing with sulfur removal, metals contaminants and olefin generation.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking

Author: John S. Magee
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN:
Size: 66.32 MB
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The primary focus of this book as a whole is on performance - performance of the catalyst, of its surface, of the FCC unit, of the feedstocks employed, of the analytical methods used to characterize the catalysts, and of environmentally directed regulations that govern the production of transportation fuels from petroleum. The emphasis on catalyst performance, particularly commercial performance, essentially dictated that the chapter authors be experienced industrial catalytic chemists and engineers. However, each author approached the task with a clear-cut obligation to connect the roots of the science of FCC catalysis with the technology. Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Science and Technology has been written for workers in industrial catalysis and academia, including graduate students in chemistry or chemical engineering who are interested in acquiring an overall knowledge of one of the world's most important areas of catalysis. The book is concise, each topic is treated briefly; complete, all aspects of FCC catalysis are covered; and clear, anyone involved in this field will find topics of interest.--[Source inconnue].

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Vi Preparation And Characterization Of Catalysts

Author: Mario L. Occelli
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531724
Size: 24.34 MB
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This volume looks at the recent progress of this technology as reported in the 21 papers presented during the 219th National Meeting of the ACS in New York, September 5-11, 2003. In addition, the volume focuses on the use of modern spectroscopic techniques for the generation of detailed structural analysis required for the advancement of the science of FCC design. Other chapters look at the use and importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), microcalorimetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the study of FCCs and discussing strategies to control pollutant emissions from a refinery FCCU and looking at advances in FCC preparation.

Spillover And Mobility Of Species On Solid Surfaces

Author: A. Guerrero-Ruiz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080539744
Size: 21.34 MB
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"Spillover and Mobility of Species and Solid Surfaces" collects the papers which were presented at the Fifth International Conference Spillover, either as oral or poster contributions, as well as the summaries of the invited lectures. This congress and its publication in the Studies on Surface Science and Catalysis series follow the tradition of previous conferences on spillover, initiated in Lyon, 1983, and continued in Leipzig, 1989, Kyoto 1993 and Dalian, 1997. For the fifth conference, held in S.L. el Escorial (Madrid), the organising committee has attempted to compile representative contributions which illustrate the advances in understanding the spillover phenomenon since 1997. Spillover is a process taking place during the interface of gas reactant molecules (mainly hydrogen and oxygen) on solid surfaces. However, different contributions to the more general area of the chemistry at surfaces, related with the mobility and migration of species, diffusion through membranes, fuel cell catalysts, etc., have also been included. In fact the title of the present volume summarizes this attempt to extend the conference topics towards dynamics at surfaces. Among the 70 contributions received, the 56 accepted papers were selected on the basis of the reports of at least two international reviewers, according to standards comparable to those applied for other specialised journals. These papers are from 21 different countries.

Catalyst Deactivation 1997

Author: G.A. Fuentes
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080528663
Size: 60.49 MB
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Catalyst Deactivation 1997 focused on 9 key topical areas: carbon deposition and coke formation, chemicals, environmental catalysis, modeling, petroleum processing, poisoning, syngas conversion, techniques, and thermal degradation. All of these areas were well represented at the meeting; moreover, several review articles were presented that provide perspectives on new research and development thrusts. The proceedings of the meeting are organized with six review and award articles at the front of the volume followed by topical articles a keynote, 5-6 oral, and 2-3 poster papers. A list of authors is provided at the end of the book. It should be emphasized that all of the papers were ranked and reviewed by members of the Scientific Committee.

Methane Conversion

Author: D.M. Bibby
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080960708
Size: 54.80 MB
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This proceedings volume comprises the invited plenary lectures, contributed and poster papers presented at a symposium organised to mark the successful inauguration of the world's first commercial plant for production of gasoline from natural gas, based on the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. The objectives of the Symposium were to present both fundamental research and engineering aspects of the development and commercialization of gas-to-gasoline processes. These include steam reforming, methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline. Possible alternative processes e.g. MOGD, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons, and the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons were also considered. The papers in this volume provide a valuable and extremely wide-ranging overview of current research into the various options for natural gas conversion, giving a detailed description of the gas-to-gasoline process and plant. Together, they represent a unique combination of fundamental surface chemistry catalyst characterization, reaction chemistry and engineering scale-up and commercialization.

Practical Advances In Petroleum Processing

Author: Chang Samuel Hsu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387257896
Size: 59.20 MB
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Includes topics not found together in books on petroleum processing: economics, automation, process modeling, online optimization, safety, environmental protection Combines overviews of petroleum composition, refinery processes, process automation, and environmental protection with comprehensive chapters on recent advances in hydroprocessing, FCC, lubricants, hydrogen management Gives diverse perspectives, both geographic and topical, because contributors include experts from eight different countries in North America, Europe and Asia, representing oil companies, universities, catalyst vendors, process licensors, consultants and engineering contractors

Fluid Catalytic Cracking

Author: J.S. Magee
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080887685
Size: 57.39 MB
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The primary focus of this book as a whole is on performance - performance of the catalyst, of its surface, of the FCC unit, of the feedstocks employed, of the analytical methods used to characterize the catalysts, and of environmentally directed regulations that govern the production of transportation fuels from petroleum. The emphasis on catalyst performance, particularly commercial performance, essentially dictated that the chapter authors be experienced industrial catalytic chemists and engineers. However, each author approached the task with a clear-cut obligation to connect the roots of the science of FCC catalysis with the technology. Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Science and Technology has been written for workers in industrial catalysis and academia, including graduate students in chemistry or chemical engineering who are interested in acquiring an overall knowledge of one of the world's most important areas of catalysis. The book is concise, each topic is treated briefly; complete, all aspects of FCC catalysis are covered; and clear, anyone involved in this field will find topics of interest.

Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Author: George A. Olah
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471461388
Size: 26.11 MB
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Hydrocarbons and their transformations play major roles in chemistry as raw materials and sources of energy. Diminishing petroleum supplies, regulatory problems, and environmental concerns constantly challenge chemists to rethink and redesign the industrial applications of hydrocarbons. Written by Nobel Prize-winner George Olah and hydrocarbon expert Árpád Molnár, the completely revised and expanded Second Edition of Hydrocarbon Chemistry provides an unparalleled contemporary assessment of the field, presenting basic concepts, current research, and future applications. Hydrocarbon Chemistry begins by discussing the general aspects of hydrocarbons, the separation of hydrocarbons from natural sources, and the synthesis from C1 precursors with recent developments for possible future applications. Each successive chapter deals with a specific type of hydrocarbon transformation. The Second Edition includes a new section on the chemical reduction of carbon dioxide–focusing on catalytic, ionic, electrocatalytic, photocatalytic, and ezymatic reductions–as well as a new chapter on new catalysts and activation methods, combinatorial chemistry, and environmental chemistry. Other topics covered include: Major processes of the petrochemical industry, such as cracking, reforming, isomerization, and alkylation Derivation reactions to form carbon-heteroatom bonds Hydrocarbon oxidations Metathesis Oligomerization and polymerization of hydrocarbons All chapters have been updated by adding sections on recent developments to review new advances and results. Essential reading for practicing scientists in industry, polymer and catalytic chemists, as well as researchers and graduate students, Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Second Edition remains the benchmark text in its field.