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Food Structure And Moisture Transfer

Author: Valérie Guillard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461463424
Size: 29.46 MB
Format: PDF
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It's well known that the structural characteristics of food materials influence their mass transfer, especially their water transfer properties during such processes as drying, hydration, and storage. In porous cereal-based products, for example, effective water diffusivity is highly affected by the volume fraction and distribution of both solid and gas phases, while in dense food materials, such as fat-based or other edible coatings, it depends on factors that affect the "tightness" of the molecular structure (e.g., free volume, cohesive energy density, crystallinity). This Brief will review the impact of food structure on moisture transfer. A multi-scale analysis of food structure will include a look at molecular structure (e.g., free volume, crystallinity), nanostructure, microstructure (e.g., porous food), and macrostructure (e.g., bilayer structure). For each structural analysis, a focus on the mathematical modelling of the relationship between structural properties and moisture transfer properties will be performed. ​

Porosity

Author: Mohammad U.H. Joardder
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331923045X
Size: 49.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This Brief provides a comprehensive overview of porosity's effects on dried food quality. The factors influencing porosity during the various drying methods are explored in depth, as well as porosity's overall effect on food properties. The chemical reaction and stability of porosity are also covered, including sensory and mechanical properties. The work looks closely at the relationship between drying conditions, pore characteristics, and dried food quality. Porosity: Establishing the relationship between drying parameters and dried food quality looks at food from a material point of view, outlining water binding characteristics and structure homogenity. The Brief presents a comprehensive view of the factors affecting porosity in dried foods, from pressure and drying rate to temperature and coating treatment, and relates these to porosity effects during the five major drying processes. Moreover, this book discusses the effect of porosity on transfer mechanisms and quality attributes of food stuff. In conclusion, this work aims to establish the relationship between drying process, quality, and porosity in dried foods.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications In Food Processing

Author: C. Anandharamakrishnan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461479908
Size: 12.88 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been applied extensively to great benefit in the food processing sector. Its numerous applications include: predicting the gas flow pattern and particle histories, such as temperature, velocity, residence time, and impact position during spray drying; modeling of ovens to provide information about temperature and airflow pattern throughout the baking chamber to enhance heat transfer and in turn final product quality; designing hybrid heating ovens, such as microwave-infrared, infrared-electrical or microwave-electrical ovens for rapid baking; model the dynamics of gastrointestinal contents during digestion based on the motor response of the GI tract and the physicochemical properties of luminal contents; retort processing of canned solid and liquid foods for understanding and optimization of the heat transfer processes. This Brief will recapitulate the various applications of CFD modeling, discuss the recent developments in this field, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of CFD when applied in the food industry. ​

Chemistry And Hygiene Of Food Additives

Author: Pasqualinà Lagana
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319570420
Size: 62.81 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This brief addresses important aspects of food additives. Through four chapters, the authors describe the chemistry of food additives, the regulatory classification of additives on a large-scale, the risks involved in using chemicals for food preparation – including implications this has on food hygiene, and case-study examples taken from the dairy industry. More specifically, chapter one provides a list of the technological purposes of food additives defined for European use; chapter two explains the 'General Standards for Food Additives' (Codex Alimentarius Commission) which is a harmonised, workable and indisputable international standard; chapter three describes the use of selected food additives in the dairy sector, particularly with relation to the production of yoghurt products; and chapter four addresses the impact of additives on human health. This brief is of interest to researchers working in the area of food production and international regulation, both in academia and industry.

Techniques For Nanoencapsulation Of Food Ingredients

Author: C. Anandharamakrishnan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461493870
Size: 76.37 MB
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Nanoencapsulation has the potential to improve human health through its capacity to both protect bioactive compounds and release them at a specific time and location into various substances, including food. Numerous nanoencapsulation technologies have emerged in recent years, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of this Brief is to discuss the various nanoencapsulation technologies, such as emulsification, coacervation, inclusion encapsulation, anti-solvent precipitation, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, and spray drying, including their limitations. Recent safety and regulatory issues concerning the various nanoencapsulation technologies will also be covered.

Alternative Routes To Oil Structuring

Author: Ashok R. Patel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319191381
Size: 36.75 MB
Format: PDF
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This Springer Brief gives an overview of recent research conducted in the area of oil structuring starting with a detailed introduction on oleogelation and properties of food-approved building blocks followed by the discussion of some illustrative examples to explain the processing steps required for creating oleogels, advanced characterization (rheological, thermal and microstructural) and some potential edible applications of oleogels. The book w concludes with a section summarizing the general guidelines on the properties of oleogels and practically of approach with regards to the specific category of building blocks used for structuring. The text also lists some unresolved challenges that need to be addressed in order to fully exploit oleogelation for future food product development. The functional application of liquid oils in food product development is mostly accomplished by structuring them into soft, plastic-like materials. This structuring of oil is traditionally based on the fat crystal network formed by high melting triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules that are rich in trans and/or saturated fatty acids. Currently, due to the factors such as the requirement for trans- and saturated fat-free food products, sustainable manufacturing and ethical trade practices, the research in the area of identifying alternative routes to oil structuring (in the absence of trans and saturated fats) has been regarded as a ‘hot topic’ in the bio-scientific community. Oleogelation (gelling of liquid oil in absence of crystallizable TAGs) is one such alternative, which has recently attracted tremendous attention from researchers and industrial scientists working in the domain of food product development. The possibility of creating structured gels that contain a large amount of liquid oil (usually above 90 wt%) opens up many possibilities to develop food products with better nutritional profiles.

Teaching Environmental Health To Children

Author: David W. Hursh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400718111
Size: 62.13 MB
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Every day we are exposed to toxins and toxicants that can impact our health. Yet we rarely teach elementary and secondary students about these exposures and how they can reduce their risk to them. In this book we highlight activities and curriculum developed at nine universities in the United States from a grant funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Our goal is to extend these lessons to a global audience and for classroom teachers of all subjects and age levels to include environmental health in their teaching. ‘An invaluable tool for equipping informed citizens to think about the environment and its human impacts --both the science, and equally important, the social and ethical dimensions’ , Howard Frumkin, M.D., Dr. P.H., Dean, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Power To Gas Technology And Business Models

Author: Markus Lehner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319039954
Size: 32.79 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Increased production of energy from renewable sources leads to a need for both new and enhanced capacities for energy transmission and intermediate storage. The book first compares different available storage options and then introduces the power-to-gas concept in a comprehensive overview of the technology. The state of the art, advancements, and future requirements for both water electrolysis and methanation are described. The integration of renewable hydrogen and methane into the gas grid is discussed in terms of the necessary technological measures to be taken. Because the power-to-gas system is very flexible, providing numerous specific applications for different targets within the energy sector, possible business models are presented on the basis of various process chains taking into account different plant scales and operating scenarios. The influence of the scale and the type of the integration of the technology into the existing energy network is highlighted with an emphasis on economic consequences. Finally, legal aspects of the operation and integration of the power-to-gas system are discussed.

Distributed Computing And Monitoring Technologies For Older Patients

Author: Juris Klonovs
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319270249
Size: 16.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book summarizes various approaches for the automatic detection of health threats to older patients at home living alone. The text begins by briefly describing those who would most benefit from healthcare supervision. The book then summarizes possible scenarios for monitoring an older patient at home, deriving the common functional requirements for monitoring technology. Next, the work identifies the state of the art of technological monitoring approaches that are practically applicable to geriatric patients. A survey is presented on a range of such interdisciplinary fields as smart homes, telemonitoring, ambient intelligence, ambient assisted living, gerontechnology, and aging-in-place technology. The book discusses relevant experimental studies, highlighting the application of sensor fusion, signal processing and machine learning techniques. Finally, the text discusses future challenges, offering a number of suggestions for further research directions.

Intermittent And Nonstationary Drying Technologies

Author: Azharul Karim
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498784119
Size: 15.89 MB
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The first comprehensive book on intermittent drying, Intermittent and Nonstationary Drying Technologies: Principles and Applications demonstrates the benefits of this process and covers key issues, including technologies, effect of operating parameters, mathematical modelling, energy-efficiency, and product quality. It discusses such topics as periodic drying, conventional and intermittent food drying processes and food quality, relationship among intermittency of drying, microstructural changes, and food quality, microwave assisted pulsed fluidized and spouted bed drying, and cellular level water distribution. Aimed at food engineers, chemical product engineers, pharmaceutical engineers and technologists, plant design engineers, and researchers and students in these areas, this useful reference helps readers: