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Forces Of The Quantum Vacuum

Author: William M R Simpson
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814644773
Size: 44.55 MB
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Forces of the Quantum Vacuum presents a number of theoretical approaches to Casimir, van der Waals and Casimir–Polder forces that have been fruitfully employed in mainstream research, and also reviews the experimental evidence for Casimir forces. Beginning with basic ideas in quantum mechanics and building its way to a sophisticated form of macroscopic QED, the book provides an inspiring training manual for graduate students to develop in a natural progression the ideas needed for modern theoretical research on Casimir forces.

The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Peter W. Milonni
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080571492
Size: 42.12 MB
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In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in The American Journal of Physics (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic Clearly presents mathematical derivations

Casimir Physics

Author: Diego Dalvit
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364220287X
Size: 77.44 MB
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Casimir effects serve as primary examples of directly observable manifestations of the nontrivial properties of quantum fields, and as such are attracting increasing interest from quantum field theorists, particle physicists, and cosmologists. Furthermore, though very weak except at short distances, Casimir forces are universal in the sense that all material objects are subject to them. They are thus also an increasingly important part of the physics of atom-surface interactions, while in nanotechnology they are being investigated not only as contributors to ‘stiction’ but also as potential mechanisms for actuating micro-electromechanical devices. While the field of Casimir physics is expanding rapidly, it has reached a level of maturity in some important respects: on the experimental side, where most sources of imprecision in force measurements have been identified as well as on the theoretical side, where, for example, semi-analytical and numerical methods for the computation of Casimir forces between bodies of arbitrary shape have been successfully developed. This book is, then, a timely and comprehensive guide to the essence of Casimir (and Casimir-Polder) physics that will have lasting value, serving the dual purpose of an introduction and reference to the field. While this volume is not intended to be a unified textbook, but rather a collection of largely independent chapters written by prominent experts in the field, the detailed and carefully written articles adopt a style that should appeal to non-specialist researchers in the field as well as to a broader audience of graduate students.

Advances In The Casimir Effect

Author: Michael Bordag
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191579882
Size: 70.76 MB
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The subject of this book is the Casimir effect, a manifestation of zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum resulting in forces acting between closely spaced bodies. For the benefit of the reader, the book assembles field-theoretical foundations of this phenomenon, applications of the general theory to real materials, and a comprehensive description of all recently performed measurements of the Casimir force with a comparison between experiment and theory. There is an urgent need for a book of this type, given the increase of interest in forces originating from the quantum vacuum. Numerous new results have been obtained in the last few years which are not reflected in previous books on the subject, but which are very promising for fundamental science and nanotechnology. The book is a unique source of information presenting a critical assessment of all the main results and approaches from hundreds of journal papers. It also outlines new ideas which have not yet been universally accepted but which are finding increasing support from experiment.

Surprises In Theoretical Casimir Physics

Author: William M.R. Simpson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319093150
Size: 15.34 MB
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Despite more than half a century of theoretical work, the Casimir effect is still not as fully understood as some suppose. In this treatise, the author uncovers new puzzles and paradoxes concerning this mysterious phenomenon. In particular, he clearly demonstrates that the most sophisticated theories fail when confronted with dielectrics in which the refractive index is not uniform but gradually changes.

Light And Vacuum

Author: Constantin Meis
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814630918
Size: 67.79 MB
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Light and Vacuum presents a synthesis of selected fundamental topics of electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics (QED) and analyzes the main theoretical difficulties encountered to ensure a coherent mathematical description of the simultaneous wave–particle nature of light, put in evidence by the experiments. The notion and the role of the quantum vacuum, strongly related to light, are extensively investigated. Classical electrodynamics issued from Maxwell's equations revealed the necessity of introducing the notion of volume for an electromagnetic wave to stand entailing precise values of cut-off wavelengths to account for the shape and dimensions of the surrounding space. Conversely, in QED, light is considered to be composed of point particles disregarding the conceptual question on how the frequency of oscillating electric and magnetic fields may be attributed to a point particle. To conciliate these concepts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work, including innovative contributions on the quantization of the vector potential amplitude at a single photon state, the non-local simultaneous wave–particle mathematical representation of the photon and finally the quantum vacuum. The purpose of the advanced elaborations is to raise questions, give hints and answers, and finally aspire for further theoretical and experimental studies in order to improve our knowledge and understanding on the real essence of Light and Vacuum. Contents:IntroductionHistorical Survey and Experimental EvidenceBasic Principles of the Electromagnetic Wave TheoryFrom Electromagnetic Waves to Quantum ElectrodynamicsTheory, Experiments and QuestionsAnalysis of the Electromagnetic Field Quantization Process and the Photon Vector Potential. The Non-Local Photon Wave-Particle Representation and the Quantum VacuumEpilogue Readership: This book is recommended for advanced postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in Quantum Mechanics and Electrodynamics. Key Features:The main mathematical ambiguities of the quantum electrodynamics formalism are clearly put in evidence, such as: derivation of the Hamiltonian without respecting Heisenberg's commutation relations, lack of an interaction Hamiltonian between the vacuum state and the electrons, singularities … etc.The basic aspect of Quantum Electrodynamics related to the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state α0k (ωk) = ξωk, which derives directly from Maxwell's equations, is uniquely described in this manuscriptA coherent mathematical coupling of the electromagnetic wave theory and quantum electrodynamics is fully provided resulting in a unique simultaneous wave particle formalism for the photon, in agreement with the experimental evidenceThe quantum vacuum issues arise naturally from the vector potential quantization procedure and corresponds to a very low energy density, compatible with recent astrophysical observations. Furthermore, it is explicitly expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators permitting direct interactions with the electronsKeywords:Light;Electromagnetic Field;Second Quantization;Photons;Electrons;Quantum Vacuum

The Casimir Effect

Author: K A Milton
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814492507
Size: 29.95 MB
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In its simplest manifestation, the Casimir effect is a quantum force of attraction between two parallel uncharged conducting plates. More generally, it refers to the interaction — which may be either attractive or repulsive — between material bodies due to quantum fluctuations in whatever fields are relevant. It is a local version of the van der Waals force between molecules. Its sweep ranges from perhaps its being the origin of the cosmological constant to its being responsible for the confinement of quarks. This monograph develops the theory of such forces, based primarily on physically transparent Green's function techniques, and makes applications from quarks to the cosmos, as well as observable consequences in condensed matter systems. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics, quantum field theory, and applied mathematics. Contents:Introduction to the Casimir EffectCasimir Force Between Parallel PlatesCasimir Force Between Parallel DielectricsCasimir Effect with Perfect SphericalThe Casimir Effect of a Dielectric Ball: The Equivalence of the Casimir Effect and van der Waals ForcesApplication to Hadronic Physics: Zero-Point Energy in the Bag ModelCasimir Effect in Cylindrical GeometriesCasimir Effect in Two Dimensions: The Maxwell-Chern-Simons Casimir EffectCasimir Effect on a D-dimensional SphereCosmological Implications of the Casimir EffectLocal EffectsSonoluminescene and the Dynamical Casimir EffectRadiative Corrections to the Casimir EffectConclusions and OutlookAppendices:Relation of Contour Integral Method to Green's Function ApproachCasimir Effect for a Closed String Readership: High-energy, condensed-matter and nuclear physicists. Keywords:Van Der Waals Forces;Quantum Field Theory;Quantum Fluctuations;Green's Functions;Finite-Temperature Field Theory;Sonoluminescence;Cosmological Constant;Boundary Conditions;Dimensional Dependence;Energy-Momentum TensorReviews:“The Casimir effect is about a lot more than a force between two metals plates, and Milton's book offers a great opportunity to read about it and learn the techniques by which it can be calculated … the book is very comprehensive, clearly written and filled with wonderful physics.”CERN Courier “Milton's attractively slim book will guide the serious beginner around the shoals, and its analytical rigor should also attract experienced theorists. It is appealing also in its unified approach, based mainly on Green's function methods that Milton and others developed in collaboration with Julian Schwinger.”Physics Today “Milton's monograph provides an outstanding review of the present state of the theory and applications of Casmir effects to diverse problems … Because of its clarity and advanced treatment, this book will likely stimulate the next stage in that development by opening a number of impenetrable fields to advanced students.”American Journal of Physics “This carefully written book gives a survey of the experimental and theoretical situation concerning the Casimir effect … All technical points are presented clearly and thoroughly. The book belongs on the shelf of anyone who wishes to make practical calculations involving the Casimir effect. The book contains an extensive bibliography. There are occasional historical notes as well. A graduate student or researcher would gain a good perspective of the role of the Casimir effect in physics from a reading.”Mathematical Reviews “Milton also tries to survey the field while emphasizing the Green's function technique in concrete calculations. In the past decades, he contributed in so many ways to our present understanding of the effect that the book more or less recounts his personal journey through the Casimir world.”Zentralblatt MATH

Neo Aristotelian Perspectives On Contemporary Science

Author: William M.R. Simpson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351813234
Size: 42.88 MB
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The last two decades have seen two significant trends emerging within the philosophy of science: the rapid development and focus on the philosophy of the specialised sciences, and a resurgence of Aristotelian metaphysics, much of which is concerned with the possibility of emergence, as well as the ontological status and indispensability of dispositions and powers in science. Despite these recent trends, few Aristotelian metaphysicians have engaged directly with the philosophy of the specialised sciences. Additionally, the relationship between fundamental Aristotelian concepts—such as "hylomorphism", "substance", and "faculties"—and contemporary science has yet to receive a critical and systematic treatment. Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Contemporary Science aims to fill this gap in the literature by bringing together essays on the relationship between Aristotelianism and science that cut across interdisciplinary boundaries. The chapters in this volume are divided into two main sections covering the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of the life sciences. Featuring original contributions from distinguished and early-career scholars, this book will be of interest to specialists in analytical metaphysics and the philosophy of science.

The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Luciano Boi
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421402475
Size: 15.51 MB
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A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and Aristotle did not believe a vacuum was possible. How could nothing be something, they asked? Boi traces the evolution of the quantum vacuum from an abstract concept in ancient Greece to its fundamental role in quantum field theory and string theory in modern times. The quantum vacuum is a complex entity, one essential to understanding some of the most intriguing issues in twentieth-century physics, including cosmic singularity, dark matter and energy, and the existence of the Higgs boson particle. Boi explains with simple clarity the relevant theories and fundamental concepts of the quantum vacuum. Theoretical, mathematical, and particle physicists, as well as researchers and students of the history and philosophy of physics, will find The Quantum Vacuum to be a stimulating and engaging primer on the topic.

The Casimir Effect

Author: K. A. Milton
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789812810526
Size: 60.65 MB
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In its simplest manifestation, the Casimir effect is a quantum force of attraction between two parallel uncharged conducting plates. More generally, it refers to the interaction OCo which may be either attractive or repulsive OCo between material bodies due to quantum fluctuations in whatever fields are relevant. It is a local version of the van der Waals force between molecules. Its sweep ranges from perhaps its being the origin of the cosmological constant to its being responsible for the confinement of quarks. This monograph develops the theory of such forces, based primarily on physically transparent Green''s function techniques, and makes applications from quarks to the cosmos, as well as observable consequences in condensed matter systems. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics, quantum field theory, and applied mathematics. Contents: Introduction to the Casimir Effect; Casimir Force Between Parallel Plates; Casimir Force Between Parallel Dielectrics; Casimir Effect with Perfect Spherical; The Casimir Effect of a Dielectric Ball: The Equivalence of the Casimir Effect and van der Waals Forces; Application to Hadronic Physics: Zero-Point Energy in the Bag Model; Casimir Effect in Cylindrical Geometries; Casimir Effect in Two Dimensions: The Maxwell-Chern-Simons Casimir Effect; Casimir Effect on a D -dimensional Sphere; Cosmological Implications of the Casimir Effect; Local Effects; Sonoluminescene and the Dynamical Casimir Effect; Radiative Corrections to the Casimir Effect; Conclusions and Outlook; Appendices: Relation of Contour Integral Method to Green''s Function Approach; Casimir Effect for a Closed String. Readership: High-energy, condensed-matter and nuclear physicists."