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From A Photograph

Author: Geoffrey Belknap
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474266754
Size: 41.25 MB
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Throughout its early history, photography's authenticity was contested and challenged: how true a representation of reality can a photograph provide? Does the reproduction of a photograph affect its value as authentic or not? From a Photograph examines these questions in the light of the early scientific periodical press, exploring how the perceived veracity of a photograph, its use as scientific evidence and the technologies developed for printing it were intimately connected. Before photomechanical printing processes became widely used in the 1890s, scientific periodicals were unable to reproduce photographs and instead included these photographic images as engravings, with the label 'from a photograph'. Consequently, every image was mediated by a human interlocutor, introducing the potential for error and misinterpretation. Rather than 'reading' photographs in the context of where or how they were taken, this book emphasises the importance of understanding how photographs are reproduced. It explores and compares the value of photography as authentic proof in both popular and scientific publications during this period of significant technological developments and a growing readership. Three case studies investigate different uses of photography in print: using pigeons to transport microphotographs during the Franco-Prussian War; the debate surrounding the development of instantaneous photography; and finally the photographs taken of the Transit of Venus in 1874, unseen by the human eye but captured on camera and made accessible to the public through the periodical. Addressing a largely overlooked area of photographic history, From a Photograph makes an important contribution to this interdisciplinary research and will be of interest to historians of photography, print culture and science.

Zum Planetarium

Author: Boris Goesl
Publisher: Verlag Wilhelm Fink
ISBN: 3846759716
Size: 76.60 MB
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Als begehbares, immersives Modell des Kosmos gewährte das Projektionsplanetarium zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts erstmals die Erfahrung einer vollkommen technisch durchdrungenen Natur. In den Jahren 1919 bis 1925 wurde in den Jenaer Zeiss-Werken ein kuppelförmiges Gebäude erfunden, das für seine Besucher den natürlichen Eindruck von Fixsternen und Planeten aus einer Projektion von Lichtpunkten und einer komplexen Überlagerung von Drehbewegungen hervorgehen ließ: das Projektionsplanetarium. Damit trat der entgötterte und in seinen Erscheinungen allein den Gesetzen von Newtons Mechanik folgende Sternenhimmel, an dem die Transzendentalphilosophie Kants die Autonomie des Erkenntnissubjekts exemplifiziert hatte, ins Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit ein. Als Simulation des raum-zeitlichen Umweltbezugs des Menschen wurde das Projektionsplanetarium zu einem Ort, an dem mitten im städtischen Alltag Natur als Produkt medialer Prozesse hervortrat und zugleich ästhetisch der Übergang in neue technische Umwelten eingeübt werden konnte.

Victorian Photography Literature And The Invention Of Modern Memory

Author: Jennifer Green-Lewis
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474263100
Size: 24.75 MB
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Invented during a period of anxiety about the ability of human memory to cope with the demands of expanding knowledge, photography not only changed the way the Victorians saw the world, but also provided them with a new sense of connection with the past and a developing language with which to describe it. Analysing a broad range of texts by inventors, cultural critics, photographers, and novelists, Victorian Photography, Literature, and the Invention of Modern Memory: Already the Past argues that Victorian photography ultimately defined the concept of memory for generations to come –including our own. In addition to being invaluable for scholars working within the emerging field of research at the intersection of photographic and literary studies, this book will also be of interest to students of Victorian and modernist literature, visual culture and intellectual history.

Photography And Other Media In The Nineteenth Century

Author: Nicoletta Leonardi
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271082526
Size: 45.73 MB
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In this volume, leading scholars of photography and media examine photography’s vital role in the evolution of media and communication in the nineteenth century. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the introduction of telegraphy, the development of a cheaper and more reliable postal service, the rise of the mass-circulation press, and the emergence of the railway dramatically changed the way people communicated and experienced time and space. Concurrently, photography developed as a medium that changed how images were produced and circulated. Yet, for the most part, photography of the era is studied outside the field of media history. The contributors to this volume challenge those established disciplinary boundaries as they programmatically explore the intersections of photography and “new media” during a period of fast-paced change. Their essays look at the emergence and early history of photography in the context of broader changes in the history of communications; the role of the nascent photographic press in photography’s infancy; and the development of photographic techniques as part of a broader media culture that included the mass-consumed novel, sound recording, and cinema. Featuring essays by noteworthy historians in photography and media history, this discipline-shifting examination of the communication revolution of the nineteenth century is an essential addition to the field of media studies. In addition to the editors, contributors to this volume are Geoffrey Batchen, Geoffrey Belknap, Lynn Berger, Jan von Brevern, Anthony Enns, André Gaudreault, Lisa Gitelman, David Henkin, Erkki Huhtamo, Philippe Marion, Peppino Ortoleva, Steffen Siegel, Richard Taws, and Kim Timby.

Die Zweite Erschaffung Der Welt

Author: Floris Cohen
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593409968
Size: 59.54 MB
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Schon Aristoteles und Ptolemaios, aber auch arabische Gelehrte des Mittelalters wussten erstaunlich viel über die Zusammenhänge in der Natur, über Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik. Doch erst Descartes und Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galilei und Newton gelang es, durch eine wissenschaftliche Revolution die Welt neu zu erschaffen. Spannend und für jeden verständlich erzählt Floris Cohen die Geschichte von der Entstehung der modernen Naturwissenschaft. Im Vergleich mit den antiken und mittelalterlichen Vorläufern erklärt er, was die Gelehrten des 17. Jahrhunderts anders machten: Sie entwickelten nicht nur Theorien, sie probierten diese auch aus, stützten ihre Beobachtungen durch Experimente und nutzten die Mathematik bei der Formulierung von Gesetzen. So schildert Cohen jene Entwicklungen, welche die industrielle Revolution in Europa erst ermöglichten. Ein Buch für alle, die neugierig sind auf eine ferne, fremde Welt, in der die Grundlagen für unser heutiges Leben geschaffen wurden.

The Design Of Everyday Things

Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Size: 68.82 MB
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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Helios

Author: Philip Brookman
Publisher: Steidl / Edition7L
ISBN:
Size: 76.18 MB
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Photographer Eadweard Muybridge was above all an innovator who played a groundbreaking role in the creative transformation of late nineteenth-century American and European culture. He pushed the limits of existing technology between 1850 and the dawn of the twentieth century, a time of rapid social and political change. Inspired by a complex set of goals that were artistic, scientific, commercial, and above all personal in nature, Muybridge reinterpreted the grand landscape traditions of photography, surveyed the construction of Western railroads, depicted the growth of the Pacific Coast of the United States, and documented the Modoc War and Central American agriculture. He then developed the ability to freeze photographic sequences describing human and animal locomotion, and reanimated these in some of the first projected motion pictures. Muybridge helped alter and expand our understanding of the world, yet the full complexity of his art is little known today. Born in England in 1830, Eadweard Muybridge immigrated to the United States in the early 1850s and began his career as a photographer in San Francisco in 1867. He radically reinvented the aesthetic and technical capabilities of the camera and in doing so gave us a new way to conceive of motion, time, and space. Today, the impact of Muybridge's art can be found in many places, from Thomas Edison's kinetoscope viewer and Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase to the poignant paintings of Francis Bacon, the blockbuster film The Matrix, and U2's video for their hit song "Lemon." It is interesting now to imagine Muybridge's world, little more than a century ago, when our sense of time was turned upside down for good. Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change constructs a new understanding of Muybridge's innovations and demonstrates his influence as a pioneer of modern art.