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Genetic Engineering And The World Trade System

Author: Daniel Wüger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139472682
Size: 12.46 MB
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While the WTO agreements do not regulate the use of biotechnology per se, their rules can have a profound impact on the use of the technology for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. This book seeks to identify the challenges to international trade regulation that arise from biotechnology. The contributions examine whether existing international obligations of WTO Members are appropriate to deal with the issues arising for the use of biotechnology and whether there is a need for new international legal instruments, including a potential WTO Agreement on Biotechnology. They combine various perspectives on and topics relating to genetic engineering and trade, including human rights and gender; intellectual property rights; traditional knowledge and access and benefit sharing; food security, trade and agricultural production and food safety; and medical research, cloning and international trade.

Encyclopedia Of Global Justice

Author: Deen K. Chatterjee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402091605
Size: 48.14 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This two-volume Encyclopedia of Global Justice, published by Springer, along with Springer's book series, Studies in Global Justice, is a major publication venture toward a comprehensive coverage of this timely topic. The Encyclopedia is an international, interdisciplinary, and collaborative project, spanning all the relevant areas of scholarship related to issues of global justice, and edited and advised by leading scholars from around the world. The wide-ranging entries present the latest ideas on this complex subject by authors who are at the cutting edge of inquiry. The Encyclopedia sets the tone and direction of this increasingly important area of scholarship for years to come. The entries number around 500 and consist of essays of 300 to 5000 words. The inclusion and length of entries are based on their significance to the topic of global justice, regardless of their importance in other areas.

Sustainable Development In International Law Making And Trade

Author: Elisabeth Bürgi Bonanomi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1784717274
Size: 16.49 MB
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This timely book provides an accessible insight into how the concept of sustainable development can be made operational through its translation into legal terms. Understood as a multidimensional legal principle, sustainable development facilitates coherent international law making. Using this notion as an analytical lens on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, the book considers the unresolved question of what a sustainable and coherent agricultural trade agreement could look like.

Health Technologies And International Intellectual Property Law

Author: Phoebe Li
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135916772
Size: 25.19 MB
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The global transmission of infectious diseases has fuelled the need for a more developed legal framework in international public health to provide prompt and specific guidance during a large-scale emergency. This book develops a means for States to take advantage of the flexibilities of compulsory licensing in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which promotes access to medicines in a public health emergency. It presents the precautionary approach (PA) and the structure of risk analysis as a means to build a workable reading of TRIPS and to help States embody the flexibilities of intellectual property (IP). The work investigates the complementary roles of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in order to promote the harmonisation of the precautionary approach in relation to the patenting of crucial pharmaceutical products. By bringing together international trade law and intellectual property law Phoebe Li demonstrates how through the use of risk analysis and the precautionary approach, States can still comply with their legal obligations in international law, while exercising their sovereignty right in issuing a compulsory licence of a drug patent in an uncertain public health emergency. This book will be of great interest to students and academics of medical and healthcare law, intellectual property law, international trade law, and human rights law.

Intellectual Property

Author: Thomas Cottier
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 0472026437
Size: 73.17 MB
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The incorporation of intellectual property protection into the WTO international trading system has been a milestone in international economic law and has added a new dimension to trade regulation — new rights and obligations and new challenges alike. The contributors, leading scholars and practitioners in the field, provide insights into the legal relationship of the TRIPs Agreement to the GATT 94 and the GATS. The book widens the debate with a thorough discussion on pending and unresolved relations of TRIPs, the WTO, UPOV, the Convention on Biodiversity and Farmers' Rights contained in the FAO International Undertaking, and efforts of the World Bank GCIAR system, including IPGRI. What will be the impact of TRIPs on ownership of plant genetic resources? Largely a victory for OECD countries, the present state of intellectual property rights has important implications for developing countries. The incorporation of intellectual property rights into the WTO system will eventually change the relationship of trade, competition, and intellectual property. It will equally have to assist in providing equitable sharing of benefits in the use of plant genetic resources. All of these issues are essential for the revision of exclusions from patenting in TRIPs. This volume offers insights into how this difficult task could and should be approached in a balanced manner and will be essential reading for economists and trade and intellectual property lawyers interested in the subject. Moreover, the volume will be relevant to agricultural economists as it addresses complex problems in the interstices of trade, intellectual property, plant genetic resources, and sustainable development. Thomas Cottier is Professor of European and International Economic Law, University of Bern, and Managing Director, World Trade Institute, University of Bern. Petros C. Mavroidis is Professor of Law, University of Neuchâtel. He formerly worked in the Legal Affairs Division of the World Trade Organization. Marion Panizzon is Research Fellow, University of Bern. Simon Lacey is Research Fellow, University of Bern.

Views From The South

Author: Sarah Denny Anderson
Publisher: Food First Books
ISBN: 9780935028829
Size: 25.50 MB
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Ever since the "Baffle in Seattle", the World Trade Organization has been featured prominently in the news. For all their talk of being dedicated to the welfare of the Third World, the WTO has damaged the economies of several countries and encouraged the growth of labor markets that more closely resemble sweat shops. Third World activists/scholars Martin Knor, Walden Bello, Vandana Shiva, Dot Keet, Sara Larrain, and Oronto Douglas examine the effects of the WTO and provide alternative agendas geared towards people, not profits. Highlights include: -- Demonstrations against globalization shut down the important World Trade Organization talks in Seattle last year; -- Machinations of WTO reported on daily; -- Jubilee 2000, the plan to cancel Third World debt, is gaining adherents and momemtum; -- Alternative agendas argue for a WTO that is responsive to the needs of the Third World, or no WTO at all.

Methods For Risk Assessment Of Transgenic Plants

Author: Klaus Ammann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3034880332
Size: 36.49 MB
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For centuries, TK has been used almost exclusively by its creators, that is, indigenous and local communities. Access to, use of and handing down of TK has been regulated by local laws, customs and tmditions. Some TK has been freely accessible by all members of an indigenous or local community and has been freely exchanged with other communities; other TK has only been known to particular individuals within these communities such as shamans, and has been handed down only to particular individuals of thc next generation. Over many generations, indigenous and local communities have accumulated a great deal of TK which has generally been adapted, developed and improved by the generations that followed. For a long time, Western anthropologists and other scientists have generally been able to freely access TK and have documented it in their works. Still, this TK was only seldom used outside the indigenous and local communities that created it. More recently, however, Western scientists have become aware that TK is neither outdated nor valueless knowledge, but, instead, 1 can be useful to solve some of the problems facing today's world. Modem science, for example, has shown an increased interest in some fornls ofTK as knowledge that can be used in 4 research and development (R&D) activities and be integrated in modem innovations. This holds especially true for TK regarding genetic resources, which has been integrated in modem 6 phannaceuticals,s agro-chemicals and seed.

Cultural Products And The World Trade Organization

Author: Tania Voon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139464833
Size: 24.73 MB
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Debate about trade and culture has a long history, but the application of WTO rules to cultural products such as films, radio, and books remains one of the most divisive issues in the organization. After assessing the economic and social arguments for treating cultural products differently from things like steel or wheat, this 2007 book explains how the vastly different views of WTO members in earlier negotiations led to an outcome that is disappointing for all. It goes on to provide a comprehensive evaluation of possible solutions, including evolution of the law through WTO dispute settlement, an agreement outside the WTO, and reforms to improve the balance between trade liberalization and cultural policy objectives.