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Genetic Resources As Natural Information

Author: Manuel Ruiz Muller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317624165
Size: 57.32 MB
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Demonstrating the shortcomings of current policy and legal approaches to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this book recognizes that genetic resources are widely distributed across countries and that bilateral contracts undermine fairness and equity. The book offers a practical and feasible regulatory alternative to ensure the goal of fairness and equity is effectively and efficiently met. Through a legal analysis that also incorporates historic, economic and sociological perspectives, the book argues that genetic resources are not tangible resources but information. It shows that the existing preference for bilateralism and contracts reflects resistance on the part of many of the stakeholders involved in the CBD process to recognize them as such. ABS issues respond very well to the economics of information, yet as the author explains, these have been either sidelined or overlooked. At a time when the Nagoya Protocol on ABS has renewed interest in feasible policy options, the author provides a constructive and provocative critique. The institutional, policy and regulatory framework constitute "bounded openness" under which fairness and equity emerge.

Routledge Handbook Of Biodiversity And The Law

Author: Charles R. McManis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131553083X
Size: 56.89 MB
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This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues arising from the conservation and exploitation of non-human biological resources. Contributors include leading academics, policy-makers and practitioners reviewing a range of socio-legal issues concerning the relationships between humankind and the natural world. The Routledge Handbook of Biodiversity and the Law includes chapters on fundamental and cutting-edge issues, including discussion of major legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. The book is divided into six distinct parts based around the major objectives which have emerged from legal frameworks concerned with protecting biodiversity. Following introductory chapters, Part II examines issues relating to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, with Part III focusing on access and benefit-sharing. Part IV discusses legal issues associated with the protection of traditional knowledge, cultural heritage and indigenous human rights. Parts V and VI focus on a selection of intellectual property issues connected to the commercial exploitation of biological resources, and analyse ethical issues, including viewpoints from economic, ethnobotanical, pharmaceutical and other scientific industry perspectives.

Contracting For Abs

Author: Shakeel Bhatti
Publisher: IUCN
ISBN: 2831709822
Size: 63.37 MB
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The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Biodiversity Access And Benefit Sharing

Author: Daniel F. Robinson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134689594
Size: 77.70 MB
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The Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is rapidly receiving signatures and ratifications. Many countries are preparing to implement the protocol through national research permit systems and/or biodiversity laws. Yet there is still considerable confusion about how to implement the Protocol, regarding access and benefit-sharing (ABS) procedures, and minimal experience in many countries. This book seeks to remedy this gap in understanding by analysing a number of ABS case studies in light of the Nagoya Protocol. The case studies are wide-ranging, with examples of plants for medicinal, cosmetic, biotech and food products from or for development in Australia, North Africa, Madagascar, Switzerland, Thailand, USA and Oceania. These will encourage countries to develop national systems which maximise their benefits (both monetary and non-monetary) towards conservation and support for local communities that hold traditional knowledge. In addition, the author analyses new expectations raised by the Nagoya Protocol, such as the encouragement of the development of community protocols by indigenous and local communities. As a result, stakeholders and policy-makers will be able to learn the steps involved in establishing ABS agreements, issues that arise between stakeholders, and the types of benefits that might be realistic.

Implementing The Nagoya Protocol

Author: Brendan Coolsaet
Publisher: Hotei Publishing
ISBN: 9004293213
Size: 58.21 MB
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Implementing the Nagoya Protocol compares existing ABS regimes in ten European countries, including one non-EU member and one EU candidate country, and critically explores several cross-cutting issues related to the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the EU.

The Custodians Of Biodiversity

Author: Manuel Ruiz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136582177
Size: 47.70 MB
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Globally, local and indigenous approaches to conserving biodiversity, crop improvement, and managing precious natural resources are under threat. Many communities have to deal with 'biopiracy,' for example. As well, existing laws are usually unsuitable for protecting indigenous and traditional knowledge and for recognizing collective rights, such as in cases of participatory plant breeding, where farmers, researchers and others join forces to improve existing crop varieties or develop new ones, based on shared knowledge and resources. This book addresses these issues. It outlines the national and international policy processes that are currently underway to protect local genetic resources and related traditional knowledge and the challenges these initiatives have faced. In particular these themes are addressed within the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The authors broaden the policy and legal debates beyond the sphere of policy experts to include the knowledge-holders themselves. These are the 'custodians of biodiversity': farmers, herders and fishers in local communities. Their experience in sharing access and benefits to genetic resources is shown to be crucial for the development of effective national and international agreements. The book presents and analyzes this experience, including case studies from China, Cuba, Honduras, Jordan, Nepal, Peru and Syria. Copublished with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

Governing Digitally Integrated Genetic Resources Data And Literature

Author: Jerome H. Reichman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316380998
Size: 48.24 MB
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The free exchange of microbial genetic information is an established public good, facilitating research on medicines, agriculture, and climate change. However, over the past quarter-century, access to genetic resources has been hindered by intellectual property claims from developed countries under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement (1994) and by claims of sovereign rights from developing countries under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (1992). In this volume, the authors examine the scientific community's responses to these obstacles and advise policymakers on how to harness provisions of the Nagoya Protocol (2010) that allow multilateral measures to support research. By pooling microbial materials, data, and literature in a carefully designed transnational e-infrastructure, the scientific community can facilitate access to essential research assets while simultaneously reinforcing the open access movement. The original empirical surveys of responses to the CBD included here provide a valuable addition to the literature on governing scientific knowledge commons.

Unraveling The Nagoya Protocol

Author: Elisa Morgera
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004217185
Size: 12.20 MB
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The Nagoya Protocol is an unprecedented international environmental agreement that equally addresses development, distributive justice, and environmental sustainability. With a balanced view of the various possible interpretations of the Protocol provisions, in light of different national and regional perspectives, and a systematic highlighting of its legal innovations, Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol: A Commentary on the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing to the Convention on Biological Diversity will serve as a seminal work for all those interested in the environment, human rights, economics and both legal and scientific innovations.

The Global Genome

Author: Eugene Thacker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262250306
Size: 38.10 MB
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In the age of global biotechnology, DNA can exist as biological material in a test tube, as a sequence in a computer database, and as economically valuable information in a patent. In The Global Genome, Eugene Thacker asks us to consider the relationship of these three entities and argues that -- by their existence and their interrelationships -- they are fundamentally redefining the notion of biological life itself.Biological science and the biotech industry are increasingly organized at a global level, in large part because of the use of the Internet in exchanging biological data. International genome sequencing efforts, genomic databases, the development of World Intellectual Property policies, and the "borderless" business of biotech are all evidence of the global intersections of biology and informatics -- of genetic codes and computer codes. Thacker points out the internal tension in the very concept of biotechnology: the products are more "tech" than "bio," but the technology itself is fully biological, composed of the biomaterial labor of genes, proteins, cells, and tissues. Is biotechnology a technology at all, he asks, or is it a notion of "life itself" that is inseparable from its use in the biotech industry?The three sections of the book cover the three primary activities of biotechnology today: the encoding of biological materials into digital form -- as in bioinformatics and genomics; its recoding in various ways -- including the "biocolonialism" of mapping genetically isolated ethnic populations and the newly pervasive concern over "biological security"; and its decoding back into biological materiality -- as in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thacker moves easily from science to philosophy to political economics, enlivening his account with ideas from such thinkers as Georges Bataille, Georges Canguilhem, Michel Foucault, Antonio Negri, and Paul Virilio. The "global genome," says Thacker, makes it impossible to consider biotechnology without the context of globalism.

A Moving Target

Author: Manuel Ruiz Muller
Publisher: IUCN
ISBN: 2831709814
Size: 29.94 MB
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Current discussions over the "Certificate of Origin, Source and Legal Provenance" include the legal and practical implications associated with tracking the flow of genetic resources. Knowing what is where, how it got there, and whether conditions and restrictions were complied with, is a critical aspect if an ABS regime is to be effective in its implementation. This book provides insights into options and components for the development of a national/international system for the tracking and monitoring of genetic resources to ensure compliance with the ABS provisions of the CBD. It includes discussions addressing the practical options for such a system, its costs and economic impacts, and its possible role in the ABS framework.