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Genetically Engineered Organisms

Author: Deborah K. Letourneau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420042033
Size: 30.34 MB
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Genetic engineering suggests new avenues for constructing useful products, but it also poses hazards to the health of the environment and the public. Delineating those hazards is complicated, difficult, and important at every level of risk assessment and risk management decision-making. Risk assessment and risk management may be further complicated by the need to discover more detailed information than is usually available. Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects gives credence to good science and to the notion that we do not have to argue about the ecological and human health effects of genetic engineering. Instead, it supports the position that we can undertake the painstaking science necessary to identify and understand those effects. Written by researchers who have done cutting edge research in disciplines such as botany, entomology, plant pathology, and other agricultural and environmental sciences, this book elaborates critical research on pollen movement, spread of transgenes in natural communities, fitness effects, resistance development, and unpredicted impacts on target and non-target organisms. These topics are explored in contexts ranging from Bt corn events and viral resistant oats to transgenic salmon and altered malarial vectors. Many chapters address theoretical and informational gaps that research presents to questions of biosafety, and some offer historical insights into factors that may affect risk assessment and risk management decision-making at the community, national, and international levels.

Safety Of Genetically Engineered Foods

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309166157
Size: 10.78 MB
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Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this book, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them. The book offers a framework to guide federal agencies in selecting the route of safety assessment. It identifies and recommends several pre- and post-market approaches to guide the assessment of unintended compositional changes that could result from genetically modified foods and research avenues to fill the knowledge gaps.

Environmental Risk Assessment Of Genetically Modified Organisms

Author: David Alan Andow
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845933907
Size: 39.96 MB
Format: PDF
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Challenges and Opportunities with GM Crops in Vietnam: the Case of Bt Cotton; Cotton Production in Vietnam; Consideration of Problem Formulation an Option Assessment (PFOA) for Environmental Risk Assessment: Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Transgene Locus Structure and Expression; Non-target and Biological Diversity Risk Assessment; Potential Effect of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Herbivores in Vietnam; Invertebrate Predators in Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Techniques for Prioritizing Species and Developing Risk Hypotheses for Risk Assessment; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Insect Parasitoids in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Flower Visitors in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Soil Ecosystem Processes in Vietnam; Environmental Risks Associated with Gene Flow from Transgenic Cotton in Vietnam; Resistance Risk Assessment and Management for Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Challenges and Opportunities with Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Synthesis and Recommendations.

Environmental Risk Assessment Of Genetically Modified Organisms Methodologies For Assessing Bt Cotton In Brazil

Author: Angelika Hilbeck
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845930002
Size: 42.79 MB
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Improving the scientific basic for environmental risk assessment through the case study of Bt cotton Brazil; The cotton agricultural context in Brazil; Consideration of problem formulation and option assessment for Bt cotton Brazil; Transgene expression and locus structure of Bt cotton; Methodology to support non-target and biodiversity risk Assessment; Non-target and biodiversity impacts on non-target herbivorous pests; Non-target and biodiversity impacts on pollinators and flower-visiting insects; Assessing the effects of Bt cotton on generalist arthropod predators; Non-target and biodiversity impacts on Parasitoids; Non-target and biodiversity impacts in soil; Assessing gene from Bt cotton in Brazil and its possible consequences; Resistance risks of Bt cotton and their managementi in Brazil; Supporting riskn assessment of Bt cotton in Brazil: synthesis and recommendations.

Genetically Engineered Marine Organisms

Author: Raymond A. Zilinskas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461554314
Size: 36.23 MB
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Genetically Engineered Marine Organisms: Environmental and Economic Risks and Benefits provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary overview of the environmental, economic, and regulatory implications of advances in marine biotechnology. The book has been specifically designed to bridge the gap between the rapidly advancing marine biotechnology industry and the government agencies that are responsible for risk assessment and regulation. Editors Raymond Zilinskas and Peter Balint have brought together experts in risk assessment, marine ecology, biotechnology, economics, and the law, to provide a unique way of examining complex issues in marine biotechnology. The contributors present innovative and challenging recommendations for protecting public health and the environment, while encouraging the development of beneficial new products in the field of marine biotechnology. As an added feature, each chapter includes a comprehensive, up-to-date bibliography. Genetically Engineered Marine Organisms: Environmental and Economic Risks and Benefits will prove invaluable to students, researchers and public employees involved with risk assessment. The book will appeal to industry personnel involved with the preparation of marine biotechnology products; scientists and administrators involved with applied research in marine biotechnology; policy analysts concerned with the economics of marine fisheries; and university personnel who focus on the interaction of risk, technology, and public policy.

Environmental Risk Assessment Of Genetically Modified Organisms

Author: A. R. Kapuscinski
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 184593296X
Size: 40.16 MB
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The decline of many individual and wild fish stocks has commanded an increase in aquaculture production to meet the protein demands of a growing population. Alongside selective breeding schemes and expanding facilities, transgenic methods have received increasing attention as a potential factor in meeting these demands. With a focus on developing countries, this third text in the series provides detailed information on environmental biosafety policy and regulation and presents methodologies for assessing ecological risks associated with transgenic fish --Publisher website, http://www.cabi.org/bk_BookDisplay.asp?PID=2054, viewed 6 December, 2007.

Genetically Engineered Foods

Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128112719
Size: 22.89 MB
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Genetically Engineered Foods, Volume 6 in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, is a solid reference for researchers and professionals needing information on genetically engineered foods in human and animal diets. The volume discusses awareness, benefits vs. disadvantages, regulations and techniques used to obtain, test and detect genetically modified plants and animals. An essential resource offering informed perspectives on the potential implications of genetically engineered foods for humans and society. Written by a team of scientific experts who share the latest advances to help further more evidence-based research and educate scientists, academics and government professionals about the safety of the global food supply. Provides in-depth coverage of the issues surrounding genetic engineering in foods Includes hot topic areas such as nutragenomics and therapeutics to show how genetically engineered foods can promote health and potentially cure disease Presents case studies where genetically engineered foods can increase production in Third World countries to promote food security Discusses environmental and economic impacts, benefits and risks to help inform decisions

Genetically Modified Plants

Author: Roger Hull
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920764
Size: 37.27 MB
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A transgenic organism is a plant, animal, bacterium, or other living organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by means of genetic engineering. Transgenic plants can arise by natural movement of genes between species, by cross-pollination based hybridization between different plant species (which is a common event in flowering plant evolution), or by laboratory manipulations by artificial insertion of genes from another species. Methods used in traditional breeding that generate transgenic plants by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pest and helping land and water to be used more efficiently. There is worldwide interest in the biosafety issues related to transgenic crops because of issues such as increased pesticide use, increased crop and weed resistance to pesticides, gene flow to related plant species, negative effects on nontarget organisms, and reduced crop and ecosystem diversity. This book is intended to provide the basic information for a wide range of people involved in the release of transgenic crops. These will include scientists and researchers in the initial stage of developing transgenic products, industrialists, and decision makers. It will be of particular interest to plant scientists taking up biotechnological approaches to agricultural improvement for developing nations. * Discusses traditional and future technology for genetic modification * Compares conventional non-GM approaches and genetic modification * Presents a risk assessment methodology for GM techniques * Details mitigation techniques for human and environmental effects

Genetically Engineered Crops

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309437385
Size: 23.24 MB
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Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.