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Genomics Obesity And The Struggle Over Responsibilities

Author: Michiel Korthals
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400701274
Size: 44.77 MB
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This volume addresses the overlapping aspects of the fields of genomics, obesity and (non-) medical ethics. It is unique in its examination of the implications of genomics for obesity from an ethical perspective. Genomics covers the sciences and technologies involved in the pathways that DNA takes until the organism is completely built and sustained: the range of genes (DNA), transcriptor factors, enhancers, promoters, RNA (copy of DNA), proteins, metabolism of cell, cellular interactions, organisms. Genomics offers a holistic approach, which, when applied to obesity, can have surprising and disturbing implications for the existing networks tackling this phenomenon. The ethical concerns and consideration presented are inspired by the interaction between the procedural perspective emphasizing the necessity of consultative and participatory organizational relationships in the new gray zones between medicine and food, and the substantive perspective that both cherishes individual autonomy and embeds it in socio-cultural contexts.

From Field To Fork

Author: Paul B. Thompson
Publisher: OUP Us
ISBN: 0199391696
Size: 68.93 MB
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Tapping into surging interest in the impacts of our food choices on ourselves and the wider world, Paul B. Thompson provides readers with a guided tour of the landscape of food ethics, applying more than thirty years of experience working with farmers, agricultural researchers, and food system activists. Thompson follows the ethics of diet and health from the ancient world to our current obesity crisis and goes on to examine diet and health issues, livestock welfare, world hunger, social injustice in food systems, environmental ethics, Green Revolution technology, and GMOs from a philosophical standpoint.

Accessing And Sharing The Benefits Of The Genomics Revolution

Author: Peter W.B. Phillips
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402058225
Size: 16.25 MB
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This volume explores the legal, economic and political debate over intellectual property rights for traditional knowledge and genetic resources, analyzing theory and practice of access and benefits sharing around the world. The book investigates current flashpoints — the battle between Monsanto and Percy Schmeiser over farmers’ rights; disputes over coexistence of genetically modified and organic produce; and ownership and control of human genetic materials stored in human gene banks around the world.

A Framework For Assessing Effects Of The Food System

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030930783X
Size: 53.46 MB
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How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

Ethics Hunger And Globalization

Author: Per Pinstrup-Andersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402061315
Size: 50.88 MB
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This unique book adds an ethics dimension to the debate and research about poverty, hunger, and globalization. Scholars and practitioners from several disciplines discuss what action is needed for ethics to play a bigger role in reducing poverty and hunger within the context of globalization. The book concludes that much of the rhetoric is not followed up with appropriate action, and discusses the role of ethics in attempts to match action with rhetoric.

Public Health Ethics Cases Spanning The Globe

Author: Drue H. Barrett
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319238477
Size: 38.15 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This Open Access book highlights the ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in the practice of public health. It is also a tool to support instruction, debate, and dialogue regarding public health ethics. Although the practice of public health has always included consideration of ethical issues, the field of public health ethics as a discipline is a relatively new and emerging area. There are few practical training resources for public health practitioners, especially resources which include discussion of realistic cases which are likely to arise in the practice of public health. This work discusses these issues on a case to case basis and helps create awareness and understanding of the ethics of public health care. The main audience for the casebook is public health practitioners, including front-line workers, field epidemiology trainers and trainees, managers, planners, and decision makers who have an interest in learning about how to integrate ethical analysis into their day to day public health practice. The casebook is also useful to schools of public health and public health students as well as to academic ethicists who can use the book to teach public health ethics and distinguish it from clinical and research ethics.

Understanding Nature

Author: Hub Zwart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402064926
Size: 26.38 MB
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Science is not the only route to understanding nature. This volume presents a series of case studies in comparative epistemology, critically comparing the works of prominent representatives of the life sciences, such as Aristotle, Darwin, and Mendel, with the writings of literary masters, such as Andersen, Melville, Verne, and Ibsen. It constitutes a major contribution to the growing field of science and literature studies.

Sapiens

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062316109
Size: 48.65 MB
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New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Accelerating Progress In Obesity Prevention

Author: Committee on Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309221544
Size: 76.82 MB
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One-third of adults are now obese, and children's obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent in the past 30 years. The causes of the nation's obesity epidemic are multi-factorial, having much more to do with the absence of sidewalks and the limited availability of healthy and affordable foods than a lack of personal responsibility. The broad societal changes that are needed to prevent obesity will inevitably affect activity and eating environments and settings for all ages. Many aspects of the obesity problem have been identified and discussed; however, there has not been complete agreement on what needs to be done to accelerate progress. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention reviews previous studies and their recommendations and presents five key recommendations to accelerate meaningful change on a societal level during the next decade. The report suggests recommendations and strategies that, independently, can accelerate progress, but urges a systems approach of many strategies working in concert to maximize progress in accelerating obesity prevention. The recommendations in Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention include major reforms in access to and opportunities for physical activity; widespread reductions in the availability of unhealthy foods and beverages and increases in access to healthier options at affordable, competitive prices; an overhaul of the messages that surround Americans through marketing and education with respect to physical activity and food consumption; expansion of the obesity prevention support structure provided by health care providers, insurers, and employers; and schools as a major national focal point for obesity prevention. The report calls on all individuals, organizations, agencies, and sectors that do or can influence physical activity and nutrition environments to assess and begin to act on their potential roles as leaders in obesity prevention.

Evaluating Obesity Prevention Efforts

Author: Committee on Evaluating Progress of Obesity Prevention Effort
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309285275
Size: 39.89 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Obesity poses one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century, creating serious health, economic, and social consequences for individuals and society. Despite acceleration in efforts to characterize, comprehend, and act on this problem, including implementation of preventive interventions, further understanding is needed on the progress and effectiveness of these interventions. Evaluating Obesity Prevention Efforts develops a concise and actionable plan for measuring the nation's progress in obesity prevention efforts--specifically, the success of policy and environmental strategies recommended in the 2012 IOM report Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. This book offers a framework that will provide guidance for systematic and routine planning, implementation, and evaluation of the advancement of obesity prevention efforts. This framework is for specific use with the goals and strategies from the 2012 report and can be used to assess the progress made in every community and throughout the country, with the ultimate goal of reducing the obesity epidemic. It offers potentially valuable guidance in improving the quality and effect of the actions being implemented. The recommendations of Evaluating Obesity Prevention Efforts focus on efforts to increase the likelihood that actions taken to prevent obesity will be evaluated, that their progress in accelerating the prevention of obesity will be monitored, and that the most promising practices will be widely disseminated.