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Mathematics And Its History

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144196052X
Size: 18.58 MB
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From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.

Geometry By Its History

Author: Alexander Ostermann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642291635
Size: 68.14 MB
Format: PDF
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In this textbook the authors present first-year geometry roughly in the order in which it was discovered. The first five chapters show how the ancient Greeks established geometry, together with its numerous practical applications, while more recent findings on Euclidian geometry are discussed as well. The following three chapters explain the revolution in geometry due to the progress made in the field of algebra by Descartes, Euler and Gauss. Spatial geometry, vector algebra and matrices are treated in chapters 9 and 10. The last chapter offers an introduction to projective geometry, which emerged in the 19thcentury. Complemented by numerous examples, exercises, figures and pictures, the book offers both motivation and insightful explanations, and provides stimulating and enjoyable reading for students and teachers alike.

The Four Pillars Of Geometry

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387255303
Size: 39.97 MB
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This book is unique in that it looks at geometry from 4 different viewpoints - Euclid-style axioms, linear algebra, projective geometry, and groups and their invariants Approach makes the subject accessible to readers of all mathematical tastes, from the visual to the algebraic Abundantly supplemented with figures and exercises

Elements Of Algebra

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475739761
Size: 43.56 MB
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Algebra is abstract mathematics - let us make no bones about it - yet it is also applied mathematics in its best and purest form. It is not abstraction for its own sake, but abstraction for the sake of efficiency, power and insight. Algebra emerged from the struggle to solve concrete, physical problems in geometry, and succeeded after 2000 years of failure by other forms of mathematics. It did this by exposing the mathematical structure of geometry, and by providing the tools to analyse it. This is typical of the way algebra is applied; it is the best and purest form of application because it reveals the simplest and most universal mathematical structures. The present book aims to foster a proper appreciation of algebra by showing abstraction at work on concrete problems, the classical problems of construction by straightedge and compass. These problems originated in the time of Euclid, when geometry and number theory were paramount, and were not solved until th the 19 century, with the advent of abstract algebra. As we now know, alge bra brings about a unification of geometry, number theory and indeed most branches of mathematics. This is not really surprising when one has a historical understanding of the subject, which I also hope to impart.

Numbers And Geometry

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461206871
Size: 76.66 MB
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A beautiful and relatively elementary account of a part of mathematics where three main fields - algebra, analysis and geometry - meet. The book provides a broad view of these subjects at the level of calculus, without being a calculus book. Its roots are in arithmetic and geometry, the two opposite poles of mathematics, and the source of historic conceptual conflict. The resolution of this conflict, and its role in the development of mathematics, is one of the main stories in the book. Stillwell has chosen an array of exciting and worthwhile topics and elegantly combines mathematical history with mathematics. He covers the main ideas of Euclid, but with 2000 years of extra insights attached. Presupposing only high school algebra, it can be read by any well prepared student entering university. Moreover, this book will be popular with graduate students and researchers in mathematics due to its attractive and unusual treatment of fundamental topics. A set of well-written exercises at the end of each section allows new ideas to be instantly tested and reinforced.

Elements Of Number Theory

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387217355
Size: 52.47 MB
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Solutions of equations in integers is the central problem of number theory and is the focus of this book. The amount of material is suitable for a one-semester course. The author has tried to avoid the ad hoc proofs in favor of unifying ideas that work in many situations. There are exercises at the end of almost every section, so that each new idea or proof receives immediate reinforcement.

Geometry Euclid And Beyond

Author: Robin Hartshorne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387226761
Size: 13.98 MB
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This book offers a unique opportunity to understand the essence of one of the great thinkers of western civilization. A guided reading of Euclid's Elements leads to a critical discussion and rigorous modern treatment of Euclid's geometry and its more recent descendants, with complete proofs. Topics include the introduction of coordinates, the theory of area, history of the parallel postulate, the various non-Euclidean geometries, and the regular and semi-regular polyhedra.

Geometry

Author: R.S. Millman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468401300
Size: 16.13 MB
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This book is intended as a first rigorous course in geometry. As the title indicates, we have adopted Birkhoff's metric approach (i.e., through use of real numbers) rather than Hilbert's synthetic approach to the subject. Throughout the text we illustrate the various axioms, definitions, and theorems with models ranging from the familiar Cartesian plane to the Poincare upper half plane, the Taxicab plane, and the Moulton plane. We hope that through an intimate acquaintance with examples (and a model is just an example), the reader will obtain a real feeling and intuition for non Euclidean (and in particular, hyperbolic) geometry. From a pedagogical viewpoint this approach has the advantage of reducing the reader's tendency to reason from a picture. In addition, our students have found the strange new world of the non-Euclidean geometries both interesting and exciting. Our basic approach is to introduce and develop the various axioms slowly, and then, in a departure from other texts, illustrate major definitions and axioms with two or three models. This has the twin advantages of showing the richness of the concept being discussed and of enabling the reader to picture the idea more clearly. Furthermore, encountering models which do not satisfy the axiom being introduced or the hypothesis of the theorem being proved often sheds more light on the relevant concept than a myriad of cases which do.

Geometry Civilized

Author: J. L. Heilbron
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198506904
Size: 67.35 MB
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Geometry Civilized is a unique combination of history and mathematics. It contains a full introduction to plane geometry and trigonometry within a fascinating historical framework that sets off the technical material. This approach to geometrical ideas gives the book its unique, readable style. The author has included a wide range of unusual and engaging geometric problems, many of which are taken from practical applications, drawn from sources ranging from ancient to modern. The study of geometry has been an important element of education in Europe since the time of the Greeks. This book helps us to understand why such emphasis has been placed on obtaining a good understanding of geometry. But the history presented here is not confined to the Western tradition. Examples drawn from other cultures, particularly Chinese and Indian, underscore the peculiarities of the geometry we have inherited from the Greeks, and thereby make Euclid's approach more accessible. Book reviews from the hardback: 'He has written a marvellous tale of how, throughout much of recorded history, geometrical thinking and civilisation have been closely intertwined. ...Definitely a book to dip into and reflect on a superior form of brainfood for the beach this summer perhaps? Heilbron's enthusiasm is contagious.' Ian Stewart, New Scientist 'The book is wonderfully illustrated. There are diagrams on almost every page, apt illustrations from older books, and well chosen photographs,together with eight colour plates. The appearance of the book is quite seductive, for which Oxford University Press should be congratulated.' Jeremy Gray, Nature 'This is a handsome book, well researched and entertainingly written. It shows how powerfully a historically informed account can communicate. If you thought Euclidean geometry was something only your great-grandparents did - try it, you will be surprised.' BJune Barrow-Green, The TIMES Higher Education Supplement

Worlds Out Of Nothing

Author: Jeremy Gray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857290601
Size: 45.85 MB
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Based on the latest historical research, Worlds Out of Nothing is the first book to provide a course on the history of geometry in the 19th century. Topics covered in the first part of the book are projective geometry, especially the concept of duality, and non-Euclidean geometry. The book then moves on to the study of the singular points of algebraic curves (Plücker’s equations) and their role in resolving a paradox in the theory of duality; to Riemann’s work on differential geometry; and to Beltrami’s role in successfully establishing non-Euclidean geometry as a rigorous mathematical subject. The final part of the book considers how projective geometry rose to prominence, and looks at Poincaré’s ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and their physical and philosophical significance. Three chapters are devoted to writing and assessing work in the history of mathematics, with examples of sample questions in the subject, advice on how to write essays, and comments on what instructors should be looking for.