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Girls Coming To Tech

Author: Amy Sue Bix
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262320274
Size: 33.93 MB
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Engineering education in the United States was long regarded as masculine territory. For decades, women who studied or worked in engineering were popularly perceived as oddities, outcasts, unfeminine (or inappropriately feminine in a male world). In Girls Coming to Tech!, Amy Bix tells the story of how women gained entrance to the traditionally male field of engineering in American higher education. As Bix explains, a few women breached the gender-reinforced boundaries of engineering education before World War II. During World War II, government, employers, and colleges actively recruited women to train as engineering aides, channeling them directly into defense work. These wartime training programs set the stage for more engineering schools to open their doors to women. Bix offers three detailed case studies of postwar engineering coeducation. Georgia Tech admitted women in 1952 to avoid a court case, over objections by traditionalists. In 1968, Caltech male students argued that nerds needed a civilizing female presence. At MIT, which had admitted women since the 1870s but treated them as a minor afterthought, feminist-era activists pushed the school to welcome more women and take their talent seriously.In the 1950s, women made up less than one percent of students in American engineering programs; in 2010 and 2011, women earned 18.4% of bachelor's degrees, 22.6% of master's degrees, and 21.8% of doctorates in engineering. Bix's account shows why these gains were hard won.

Girls Coming To Tech

Author: Amy Sue Bix
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026201954X
Size: 22.72 MB
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How women coped with both formal barriers and informal opposition to their entry into the traditionally masculine field of engineering in American higher education.

Women In Engineering

Author: Margaret E. Layne
Publisher: ASCE Publications
ISBN: 9780784409800
Size: 76.12 MB
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Women in Engineering: Pioneers and Trailblazers introduces the visionary women who opened the door for today s female engineers. Pioneers such as Emily Roebling, Kate Gleason, Edith Clarke, and Katherine Stinson come to life in this anthology of essays, articles, lectures, and reports. In this book, the significant contributions women have made to engineering, in areas as diverse as construction management, environmental protection, and industrial efficiency, are finally placed in their proper historical context. Studies on women engineers in the 1920s and in the years following World War II, underscore how far women have progressed in engineering, and how far they have to go. With selections that span a century of historical and social analysis, Women in Engineering: Pioneers and Trailblazers and its companion volume, Women in Engineering: Professional Life, present a range of perspectives on women in engineering that will be of interest to historians, engineers, educators, and students. About the Author Margaret E. Layne, P.E., is project director of Advance VT, a program created at Virginia Tech to increase the participation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers.

The Future Of Tech Is Female

Author: Douglas M. Branson
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479875171
Size: 53.36 MB
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The conundrum -- Industries that do not hire or promote -- The paradox -- Qualifications and reservations -- Poor performances by female CEOs -- A history of women in information technology -- Once upon a time -- Basic education : impediments to overcome -- The distant past and near future -- Solutions advanced -- Women to try harder : "lean in" and similar recommendations -- Mandatory quota laws -- Certificate and pledge programs -- Comply or explain regimes -- Mentoring and sponsorship -- Mandatory disclosure : the U.S. experience -- Proposals for stem education -- The industry's answer : an expanded H-1b visa program -- Solutions that may work -- Leavening stem education -- Paying close attention to the pool problem -- Enlarging the pool : easing off-ramps and enhancing on-ramps -- Measure what you intend to manage and ways to manage it -- Adopt a version of the Rooney rule -- Theoretical feminist views -- Needed fixes?now -- Reform the gaming industry -- Final observations -- Appendix A. Publicly held information technology companies -- Appendix B. Publicly held information technology companies?women senior -- Executives -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index -- About the author

Why So Few

Author: Catherine Hill
Publisher: Aauw Educational Foundation
ISBN: 9781879922402
Size: 62.11 MB
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"In an era when women are increasingly prominent in medicine, law and business, why are there so few women scientists and engineers? A new research report by AAUW presents compelling evidence that can help to explain this puzzle. Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics presents in-depth yet accessible profiles of eight key research findings that point to environmental and social barriers - including stereotypes, gender bias and the climate of science and engineering departments in colleges and universities - that continue to block women's participation and progress in science, technology, engineering, and math. The report also includes up to date statistics on girls' and women's achievement and participation in these areas and offers new ideas for what each of us can do to more fully open scientific and engineering fields to girls and women."--pub. desc.

Searching For Scientific Womanpower

Author: Laura Micheletti Puaca
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469610825
Size: 66.34 MB
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This compelling history of what Laura Micheletti Puaca terms "technocratic feminism" traces contemporary feminist interest in science to the World War II and early Cold War years. During a period when anxiety about America's supply of scientific personnel ran high and when open support for women's rights generated suspicion, feminist reformers routinely invoked national security rhetoric and scientific "manpower" concerns in their efforts to advance women's education and employment. Despite the limitations of this strategy, it laid the groundwork for later feminist reforms in both science and society. The past and present manifestations of technocratic feminism also offer new evidence of what has become increasingly recognized as a "long women's movement." Drawing on an impressive array of archival collections and primary sources, Puaca brings to light the untold story of an important but largely overlooked strand of feminist activism. This book reveals much about the history of American feminism, the politics of national security, and the complicated relationship between the two.

Gender Indicators In Science Engineering And Technology

Author: Sophia Huyer
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9231040383
Size: 15.36 MB
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This toolkit provides a survey of the differential gender patterns of participation by men and women in science and technology. It assesses information provided by current sex-disaggregated quantitative data, along with discussing the reasons for differential rates of participation between women and men. The volume also looks at international methods for measuring science and technology activities, personnel and qualifications, and occupations, as well as how these can be properly disaggregated by sex, age and other variables. A key question addressed includes how to define economic and employment activities that can constitute or incorporate scientific and technological activities.--Publisher's description.

Engineers For Change

Author: Matthew Wisnioski
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262304260
Size: 39.25 MB
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In the late 1960s an eclectic group of engineers joined the antiwar and civil rights activists of the time in agitating for change. The engineers were fighting to remake their profession, challenging their fellow engineers to embrace a more humane vision of technology. In Engineers for Change, Matthew Wisnioski offers an account of this conflict within engineering, linking it to deep-seated assumptions about technology and American life. The postwar period in America saw a near-utopian belief in technology's beneficence. Beginning in the mid-1960s, however, society--influenced by the antitechnology writings of such thinkers as Jacques Ellul and Lewis Mumford--began to view technology in a more negative light. Engineers themselves were seen as conformist organization men propping up the military-industrial complex. A dissident minority of engineers offered critiques of their profession that appropriated concepts from technology's critics. These dissidents were criticized in turn by conservatives who regarded them as countercultural Luddites. And yet, as Wisnioski shows, the radical minority spurred the professional elite to promote a new understanding of technology as a rapidly accelerating force that our institutions are ill-equipped to handle. The negative consequences of technology spring from its very nature--and not from engineering's failures. "Sociotechnologists" were recruited to help society adjust to its technology. Wisnioski argues that in responding to the challenges posed by critics within their profession, engineers in the 1960s helped shape our dominant contemporary understanding of technological change as the driver of history.

Women And Ideas In Engineering

Author: Laura D. Hahn
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252041969
Size: 53.89 MB
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The increasing presence of women within engineering programs is one of today's most dramatic developments in higher education. Long before, however, a group of talented and determined women carved out new paths in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois. Laura D. Hahn and Angela S. Wolters bring to light the compelling hidden stories of these pioneering figures. When Mary Louisa Page became the College's first female graduate in 1879, she also was the first American woman ever awarded a degree in architecture. Bobbie Johnson's insistence on "a real engineering job" put her on a path to the Apollo and Skylab programs. Grace Wilson, one of the College's first female faculty members, taught and mentored a generation of women. Their stories and many others illuminate the forgotten history of women in engineering. At the same time, the authors offer insights into the experiences of today's women from the College -- a glimpse of a brighter future, one where more women in STEM fields apply their tireless dedication to the innovations that shape a better tomorrow.

Engineering In K 12 Education

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309144711
Size: 60.70 MB
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Engineering education in K-12 classrooms is a small but growing phenomenon that may have implications for engineering and also for the other STEM subjects--science, technology, and mathematics. Specifically, engineering education may improve student learning and achievement in science and mathematics, increase awareness of engineering and the work of engineers, boost youth interest in pursuing engineering as a career, and increase the technological literacy of all students. The teaching of STEM subjects in U.S. schools must be improved in order to retain U.S. competitiveness in the global economy and to develop a workforce with the knowledge and skills to address technical and technological issues. Engineering in K-12 Education reviews the scope and impact of engineering education today and makes several recommendations to address curriculum, policy, and funding issues. The book also analyzes a number of K-12 engineering curricula in depth and discusses what is known from the cognitive sciences about how children learn engineering-related concepts and skills. Engineering in K-12 Education will serve as a reference for science, technology, engineering, and math educators, policy makers, employers, and others concerned about the development of the country's technical workforce. The book will also prove useful to educational researchers, cognitive scientists, advocates for greater public understanding of engineering, and those working to boost technological and scientific literacy.