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Glaciations In North And South America From The Miocene To The Last Glacial Maximum

Author: Nat Rutter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400743998
Size: 35.99 MB
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Improved dating methods have increased our ability to more precisely determine the timing and durations of glaciations. Utilizing glacial and loess deposits, we have compared glaciations that occurred in North and South America in order to determine if events are synchronous or not, to explore forcing mechanisms, and to compare glaciations with cold periods of the Marine Oxygen Isotope stages and the loess/paleosol records of China. Stratigraphic sections containing a variety of glacial deposits, some with interbedded volcanics, as well as loess deposits, were used in reconstructing the glacial history. The Late Pleistocene (Brunhes Chron) Last Glacial Maximum is recognized in mountain and continental areas of North America but only in the mountains of South America. Commonly our comparisons indicate roughly synchronous glaciations on the two continents, whereas other glaciations are more elusive and difficult to compare. Although our comparisons are at low resolutions, the results suggest that Milankovitch forcing is most likely the dominant trigger for hemispheric glaciation modified by local factors.

Marine Isotope Stage 3 In Southern South America 60 Ka B P 30 Ka B P

Author: German Mariano Gasparini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319400002
Size: 45.58 MB
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This book presents isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from core samples in South America. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) is examined in detail with respect to Stage 3. With over 20 chapters, this detailed treatise discusses high climatic variability, paleoclimatic events, Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, continental vertebrates, sea level changes, vegetation and climate changes based on pollen records, and the non-Amazon landscape and fauna from 65 to 20 ka B.P. The book also looks at the earth’s magnetic field and climate change during MIS 3 and MIS 5 and presents a comparison between both stages with respect to marine deposits in Uruguay. With case studies drawn from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay this book presents research from the some of the worlds experts in this field.

Climate Fire And Human Evolution

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331922512X
Size: 56.88 MB
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.

Evolution Of The Atmosphere Fire And The Anthropocene Climate Event Horizon

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400773323
Size: 67.21 MB
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Unique among all creatures, further to the increase in its cranial volume from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens, the use of tools and cultural and scientific creativity, the genus Homo is distinguished by the mastery of fire, which since about two million years ago has become its blueprint. Through the Holocene and culminating in the Anthropocene, the burning of much of the terrestrial vegetation, excavation and combustion of fossil carbon from up to 420 million years-old biospheres, are leading to a global oxidation event on a geological scale, a rise in entropy in nature and the sixth mass extinction of species.

The Paleogene And Neogene Of Western Iberia Portugal

Author: João Pais
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642224010
Size: 35.65 MB
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This volume includes a general description of the Portuguese Cenozoic basins in the Iberian tectonic context. The main stratigraphic units, including sedimentological, stratigraphical and palaeontological data, are characterized. Correlations between different sectors are presented as well as general paleogeographical evolution maps. The volume includes a general bibliography concerning the Cenozoic of Portugal.

Volcanic Landscapes And Associated Wetlands Of Lowland Patagonia

Author: Elizabeth Mazzoni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319719211
Size: 47.97 MB
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This book presents the most relevant basaltic plateau exposures in the provinces of Neuquén (northern Patagonia) and Santa Cruz (southern Patagonia), and analyzes their geomorphological and morphometric characteristics. The existence of wetland ecosystems near the volcanic plateaus is quantified, thus providing indexes that describe the quantitative relationships between these landscape features. These indexes also make it possible to estimate the development of these wetlands in non-surveyed areas, opening the door for studying remote, isolated areas by means of remote sensing images. In turn, the book proposes a numerical classification system for this type of landscape that summarizes the main geomorphological and hydrological characteristics.teristics.

A Brief History Of South American Metatherians

Author: Francisco Goin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940177420X
Size: 39.26 MB
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This book summarizes major aspects of the evolution of South American metatherians, including their epistemologic, phylogenetic, biogeographic, faunal, tectonic, paleoclimatic, and metabolic contexts. A brief overview of the evolution of each major South American lineage ("Ameridelphia", Sparassodonta, Didelphimorphia, Paucituberculata, Microbiotheria, and Polydolopimorphia) is provided. It is argued that due to physiological constraints, metatherian evolution closely followed the conditions imposed by global temperatures. In general terms, during the Paleocene and the early Eocene multiple radiations of metatherian lineages occurred, with many adaptive types exploiting insectivorous, frugivorous, and omnivorous adaptive zones. In turn, a mixture of generalized and specialized types, the latter mainly exploiting carnivorous and granivorous-folivorous adaptive zones, characterized the second half of the Cenozoic. In both periods, climate was the critical driver of their radiation and turnovers.

Landscape And Ecosystem Diversity Dynamics And Management In The Yellow River Source Zone

Author: Gary John Brierley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319304755
Size: 15.84 MB
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This book offers a comprehensive review of the landscapes and ecosystems of the Upper Yellow River. It focuses on landscapes as a platform for considering environmental values and issues across the region. The book is based on extensive field-based analyses, applications, and photographs.

Latin American Heritage

Author: Fabiana Lopes da Cunha
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319584480
Size: 79.59 MB
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Focusing on Brazil, this book approaches the term “heritage” from not only a historical and architectural point of view, but also considers its artistic, archaeological, natural, ethnological and industrial aspects. The book is divided into four thematic sections – 1) traditions and intangible heritage, 2) archaeological heritage, 3) natural heritage and landscapes, and 4) heritage of industrial and built environments – and presents chapters on a diverse range of topics, from samba and cultural identities in Rio de Janeiro, to the history of Brazilian archaeology, the value of scenic landscapes in Brazil, and the cultural landscape of Brazil. As an outcome of the First Heritage International Symposium, this unique book explores a variety of heritage dialogues, pursuing global and specific approaches, and combining different views, perceptions and senses.

Aeolian Geomorphology

Author: Livingstone
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781118945667
Size: 25.99 MB
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A revised introduction to aeolian geomorphology written by noted experts in the field The new, revised and updated edition of Aeolian Geomorphology offers a concise and highly accessible introduction to the subject. The text covers the topics of deserts and coastlines, as well as periglacial and planetary landforms. The authors review the range of aeolian characteristics that include soil erosion and its consequences, continental scale dust storms, sand dunes and loess. Aeolian Geomorphology explores the importance of aeolian processes in the past, and the application of knowledge about aeolian geomorphology in environmental management. The new edition includes contributions from eighteen experts from four continents. All the chapters demonstrate huge advances in observation, measurement and mathematical modelling. For example, the chapter on sand seas shows the impact of greatly enhanced and accessible remote sensing and the chapter on active dunes clearly demonstrates the impact of improvements in field techniques. Other examples reveal the power of greatly improved laboratory techniques. This important text: Offers a comprehensive review of aeolian geomorphology Contains contributions from an international panel of eighteen experts in the field Includes the results of the most recent research on the topic Filled with illustrative examples that demonstrate the advances in laboratory approaches Written for students and professionals in the field, Aeolian Geomorphology provides a comprehensive introduction to the topic in twelve new chapters with contributions from noted experts in the field.