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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Author: M. B. W. Tent
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439892229
Size: 43.18 MB
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The Polymath Who Brought Us Calculus focuses on the life and accomplishments of one of the seventeenth century’s most influential mathematicians and philosophers. The book, which draws on Leibniz’s written works and translations, and reconstructs dialogues Leibniz may have had based on the historical record of his life experiences, portrays Leibniz as both a phenomenal genius and a real person. Suitable for middle school age readers, the book traces Leibniz’s life from his early years as a young boy and student to his later work as a court historian. It discusses the intellectual and social climate in which he fought for his ideas, including his rather contentious relationship with Newton (both claimed to have invented calculus). The text describes how Leibniz developed the first mechanical calculator that could handle addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It also examines his passionate advocacy of rational arguments in all controversial matters, including the law, expressed in his famous exclamation calculemus: let us calculate to see who is right. Leibniz made groundbreaking contributions to mathematics and philosophy that have shaped our modern views of these fields.

The Enlightenment

Author: Anthony Pagden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019966093X
Size: 55.93 MB
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This book tells nothing less than the story of how the modern, Western view of the world was born. Cultural and intellectual historian Anthony Pagden explains how, and why, the ideal of a universal, global, and cosmopolitan society became such a central part of the Western imagination in the ferment of the Enlightenment - and how these ideas have done battle with an inward-looking, tradition-oriented view of the world ever since. Cosmopolitanism is an ancient creed; but in its modern form it was a creature of the Enlightenment attempt to create a new 'science of man', based upon a vision of humanity made up of autonomous individuals, free from all the constraints imposed by custom, prejudice, and religion. As Pagden shows, this 'new science' was based not simply on 'cold, calculating reason', as its critics claimed, but on the argument that all humans are linked by what in the Enlightenment were called 'sympathetic' attachments. The conclusion was that despite the many tribes and nations into which humanity was divided there was only one 'human nature', and that the final destiny of the species could only be the creation of one universal, cosmopolitan society. This new 'human science' provided the philosophical grounding of the modern world. It has been the inspiration behind the League of Nations, the United Nations and the European Union. Without it, international law, global justice, and human rights legislation would be unthinkable. As Anthony Pagden argues passionately and persuasively in this book, it is a legacy well worth preserving - and one that might yet come to inherit the earth.

Philosophy Of Science

Author: Timothy McGrew
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405175435
Size: 33.54 MB
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By combining excerpts from key historical writings with commentary by experts, Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology provides a comprehensive history of the philosophy of science from ancient to modern times. Provides a comprehensive history of the philosophy of science, from antiquity up to the 20th century Includes extensive commentary by scholars putting the selected writings in historical context and pointing out their interconnections Covers areas rarely seen in philosophy of science texts, including the philosophical dimensions of biology, chemistry, and geology Designed to be accessible to both undergraduates and graduate students

The Many Faces Of Philosophy

Author: Amélie Oksenberg Rorty
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195176553
Size: 73.62 MB
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This historically based collection of philosophers' reflections--the letters, journals and prefaces that reveals their hopes and hesitations, their triumphs and struggles, their deepest doubts and convictions--allows us to witness philosophical thought in process. Ranging from Plato to Hannah Arendt, with contributions from 44 philosophers (Augustine, Maimonides, AlGhazali, Descartes, Pascal, Leibniz, Voltaire, Rousseau, Hobbes, Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, among others) this remarkable collection documents philosophers' claim that they change as well as understand the world. In her introductory essay, "Witnessing Philosophers," Amelie Rorty locates philosophers' reflections in the larger context of the many facets of their other activities and commitments.

The God Confusion

Author: Gary Cox
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 162356980X
Size: 35.94 MB
Format: PDF
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What is God? Does he exist? Can we know? The God Confusion offers a down-to-earth beginner's guide for anyone interested in these questions. It does not evangelize for God and religion or, indeed, for atheism, secularism and science. Instead, it explores in a witty yet objective and balanced way the idea of God and the strengths and weaknesses of the standard arguments for his existence. Gary Cox shows that the philosophical reasoning at the heart of these arguments is logically incapable of moving beyond speculation to any kind of proof. The only credible philosophical position is therefore agnosticism. The God Confusion defends science generally and the theory of evolution in particular. It argues that if religion is not to appear increasingly outdated and ridiculous in the eyes of free-thinking, educated people, it must accommodate science and accept that science has replaced the old God of the gaps as an explanation of natural phenomena. Concluding that God may or may not exist, on the grounds that science, philosophy and theology are inherently incapable of proving or disproving his existence, The God Confusion acknowledges that religious faith based on a deliberate commitment to live as though there is a moral God is a coherent notion and a worthwhile, even prudent enterprise. At the same time, it rejects the idea of inner certainty as mere wishful thinking, arguing that it is not a coherent basis for belief and is simply bad faith.

Group Theory

Author: Helmut Wielandt
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110863383
Size: 79.24 MB
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Zwischen F Rstenwillk R Und Menschheitswohl

Author: Karin Hartbecke
Publisher: Vittorio Klostermann
ISBN: 9783465035879
Size: 72.98 MB
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz leitete die Bibliothek der Hannoveraner Welfen vierzig Jahre lang bis zu seinem Tod 1716. Die Vision, dass eine Hofbibliothek nicht allein der Machtspiegelung ihres fürstlichen Besitzers, sondern zugleich der öffentlichen Wohlfahrt dienen möge, äußerte er in dieser Zeit wiederholt. Mit einer Erwerbungspolitik, die auf die enzyklopädische Repräsentanz allen verfügbaren Wissens zielte, schien Leibniz diese Vision erreichbar: Erst eine Bibliothek, die nicht einseitig den Belangen des Hofes dienstbar gemacht würde, könnte ihre Benutzer in die Lage versetzen, die noch nicht absehbaren theoretischen und praktischen Probleme der Zukunft zu lösen. Im Aufbau von Wissensspeichern als Teilen einer fortschrittsfördernden wissenschaftlichen Infrastruktur sah Leibniz eine zentrale Aufgabe des territorialen Wohlfahrtsstaates. Setzte Leibniz' Vision demnach auf die Vereinbarkeit von Staatsraison und Wissenschaft, so stellte sich dies Verhältnis in der Realität doch eherals ein Spannungsverhältnis dar. Die einseitige Vereinnahmung der Bibliothek für die fürstlichen Machtinteressen und die mangelnde Kontinuität, mit der Geld in die Pflege der Büchersammlungen floss, stellte ihn in der bibliothekarischen Praxis vor geradezu unüberwindliche Herausforderungen