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Governing Lethal Behavior In Autonomous Robots

Author: Ronald Arkin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420085952
Size: 15.72 MB
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Expounding on the results of the author’s work with the US Army Research Office, DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, and various defense industry contractors, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots explores how to produce an "artificial conscience" in a new class of robots, humane-oids, which are robots that can potentially perform more ethically than humans in the battlefield. The author examines the philosophical basis, motivation, theory, and design recommendations for the implementation of an ethical control and reasoning system in autonomous robot systems, taking into account the Laws of War and Rules of Engagement. The book presents robot architectural design recommendations for Post facto suppression of unethical behavior, Behavioral design that incorporates ethical constraints from the onset, The use of affective functions as an adaptive component in the event of unethical action, and A mechanism that identifies and advises operators regarding their ultimate responsibility for the deployment of autonomous systems. It also examines why soldiers fail in battle regarding ethical decisions; discusses the opinions of the public, researchers, policymakers, and military personnel on the use of lethality by autonomous systems; provides examples that illustrate autonomous systems’ ethical use of force; and includes relevant Laws of War. Helping ensure that warfare is conducted justly with the advent of autonomous robots, this book shows that the first steps toward creating robots that not only conform to international law but outperform human soldiers in their ethical capacity are within reach in the future. It supplies the motivation, philosophy, formalisms, representational requirements, architectural design criteria, recommendations, and test scenarios to design and construct an autonomous robotic system capable of ethically using lethal force. Ron Arkin was quoted in a November 2010 New York Times article about robots in the military.

Living With Robots

Author: Paul Dumouchel
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674971736
Size: 30.17 MB
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Living with Robots recounts a foundational shift in robotics, from artificial intelligence to artificial empathy, and foreshadows an inflection point in human evolution. As robots engage with people in socially meaningful ways, social robotics probes the nature of the human emotions that social robots are designed to emulate.

Military Robots

Author: Jai Galliott
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317096002
Size: 74.36 MB
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Philosophers have wrestled over the morality and ethics of war for nearly as long as human beings have been waging it. The death and destruction that unmanned warfare entails magnifies the moral and ethical challenges we face in conventional warfare and everyday society. Intrinsically linked are questions and perennial problems concerning what justifies the initial resort to war, who may be legitimately targeted in warfare, who should be permitted to serve the military, the collateral effects of military weaponry and the methods of determining and dealing with violations of the laws of war. This book provides a comprehensive and unifying analysis of the moral, political and social questions concerning the rise of drone warfare.

Robotic Wars

Author: Markus Reisner
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3945861780
Size: 39.85 MB
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Die technologischen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre haben dazu geführt, dass eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher militärischer Unmanned Air, Ground und Maritime Systems geschaffen wurden. Deren Fähigkeiten führten zu einer Transformation der modernen Kriegführung. Sie sind im Kampf gegen asymmetrische Kriegführung und Terrorismus für moderne Militärs die 'Waffen erster Wahl'. Die Entwicklung von militärischen Robotern nimmt zu, und die Entwicklung Herstellung eines vollautonomern Systemes scheint möglich. Das existierende Humanitäre Völkerrecht geht nicht im Speziellen auf autonome Waffen ein. Diese Situation führt daher zur weitverbreiteten Besorgnis, dass autonome Waffen ethische und moralische Problemstellungen verursachen und Herausforderungen schaffen. Bei der Durchführung von Kampfhandlungen sollten auch für zukünftige Waffensysteme Grundsätze wie Verhältnismäßigkeit und Unterscheidung gelten. Derzeit existierende unbemannte Waffensysteme können bereits einige Funktionen autonom durchführen. Sie können ein Ziel finden und verfolgen sowie eine geleitete Rakete abfeuern. Die Auslöseinstanz ist dabei immer noch der Mensch. Im Falle der Entwicklung eines vollautonomen Systems ist dies möglicherweise nicht mehr der Fall. Das vorliegende Buch stellt den derzeitigen Einsatz von unbemannten militärischen Robotern dar. Es geht der Frage nach, ob wir Menschen es zulassen wollen, dass in Zukunft die Entscheidung über Leben und Tod von vollautonomen, mit Künstlicher Intelligenz ausgestatteten, Maschinen getroffen werden.

Kriegsmaschinen Roboter Im Milit Reinsatz Telepolis

Author: Hans-Arthur Marsiske
Publisher: Heise Verlag
ISBN: 3936931933
Size: 15.99 MB
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Militärroboter sind keine Science fiction mehr. Ihre Bedeutung in bewaffneten Konflikten hat in den letzten zehn Jahren massiv zugenommen. Insbesondere US-Präsident Obama setzte im Kampf gegen den Terrorismus stark auf Drohnen - und konnte mit der Tötung Osama bin Ladens einen spektakulären Erfolg seiner Strategie verzeichnen. Die in diesem Buch versammelten Beiträge betrachten das Problem der Militärroboter aus unterschiedlichen Perspektiven: Friedensforscher und Informatiker kommen ebenso zu Wort wie Filmhistoriker, Philosophen und Science-Fiction-Autoren.

Lost Causes

Author: Charli Carpenter
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801470358
Size: 77.19 MB
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Why do some issues and threats—diseases, weapons, human rights abuses, vulnerable populations—get more global policy attention than others? How do global activist networks decide the particular causes for which they advocate among the many problems in need of solutions? According to Charli Carpenter, the answer lies in the politics of global issue networks themselves. Building on surveys, focus groups, and analyses of issue network websites, Carpenter concludes that network access has a direct relation to influence over how issues are ranked. Advocacy elites in nongovernmental and transnational organizations judge candidate issues not just on their merit but on how the issues connect to specific organizations, individuals, and even other issues. In “Lost” Causes, Carpenter uses three case studies of emerging campaigns to show these dynamics at work: banning infant male circumcision; compensating the wartime killing and maiming of civilians; and prohibiting the deployment of fully autonomous weapons (so-called killer robots). The fate of each of these campaigns was determined not just by the persistence and hard work of entrepreneurs but by advocacy elites’ perception of the issues’ network ties. Combining sweeping analytical argument with compelling narrative, Carpenter reveals how the global human security agenda is determined.

Killing By Remote Control

Author: Bradley Jay Strawser
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199339791
Size: 53.37 MB
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The increased military employment of remotely operated aerial vehicles, also known as drones, has raised a wide variety of important ethical questions, concerns, and challenges. Many of these have not yet received the serious scholarly examination such worries rightly demand. This volume attempts to fill that gap through sustained analysis of a wide range of specific moral issues that arise from this new form of killing by remote control. Many, for example, are troubled by the impact that killing through the mediated mechanisms of a drone half a world away has on the pilots who fly them. What happens to concepts such as bravery and courage when a war-fighter controlling a drone is never exposed to any physical danger? This dramatic shift in risk also creates conditions of extreme asymmetry between those who wage war and those they fight. What are the moral implications of such asymmetry on the military that employs such drones and the broader questions for war and a hope for peace in the world going forward? How does this technology impact the likely successes of counter-insurgency operations or humanitarian interventions? Does not such weaponry run the risk of making war too easy to wage and tempt policy makers into killing when other more difficult means should be undertaken? Killing By Remote Control directly engages all of these issues. Some essays discuss the just war tradition and explore whether the rise of drones necessitates a shift in the ways we think about the ethics of war in the broadest sense. Others scrutinize more specific uses of drones, such as their present use in what are known as "targeted killing" by the United States. The book similarly tackles the looming prospect of autonomous drones and the many serious moral misgivings such a future portends. "A path-breaking volume! BJ Strawser, an internationally known analyst of drone ethics, has assembled a broad spectrum of civilian and military experts to create the first book devoted to this hot-button issue. This important work represents vanguard thinking on weapon systems that make headlines nearly every day. It will catalyze debates policy-makers and military leaders must have in order to preserve peace and protect the innocent. - James Cook, Department Chair/Head of Philosophy, US Air Force Academy "The use of 'drones' (remotely piloted air vehicles) in war has grown exponentially in recent years. Clearly, this evolution presages an enormous explosion of robotic vehicles in war - in the air, on the ground, and on and under the sea. This collection of essays provides an invaluable contribution to what promises to be one of the most fundamental challenges to our assumptions about ethics and warfare in at least the last century. The authors in this anthology approach the ethical challenges posed by these rapidly advancing technologies from a wide range of perspectives. Cumulatively, they represent an essential overview of the fundamental ethical issues involved in their development. This collection makes a key contribution to an urgently needed dialogue about the moral questions involved." - Martin L. Cook, Adm. James B. Stockdale Professor of Professional Military Ethics, Professor Leadership & Ethics, College of Operational & Strategic Leadership, U.S. Naval War College

Der Lange Weg Zur Freiheit

Author: Nelson Mandela
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104031541
Size: 27.41 MB
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»Ich bin einer von ungezählten Millionen, die durch Nelson Mandelas Leben inspiriert wurden.« Barack Obama Eine fast drei Jahrzehnte währende Gefängnishaft ließ Nelson Mandela zum Mythos der schwarzen Befreiungsbewegung werden. Kaum ein anderer Politiker unserer Zeit symbolisiert heute in solchem Maße die Friedenshoffnungen der Menschheit und den Gedanken der Aussöhnung aller Rassen wie der ehemalige südafrikanische Präsident und Friedensnobelpreisträger. Auch nach seinem Tod finden seine ungebrochene Charakterstärke und Menschenfreundlichkeit die Bewunderung aller friedenswilligen Menschen auf der Welt. Mandelas Lebensgeschichte ist über die politische Bedeutung hinaus ein spannend zu lesendes, kenntnis- und faktenreiches Dokument menschlicher Entwicklung unter Bedingungen und Fährnissen, vor denen die meisten Menschen innerlich wie äußerlich kapituliert haben dürften.