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Ground Based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement Using Sunphotometers

Author: Jedol Dayou
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9812871012
Size: 52.24 MB
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This book gives a detailed review on ground-based aerosol optical depth measurement with emphasis on the calibration issue. The review is written in chronological sequence to render better comprehension on the evolution of the classical Langley calibration from the past to present. It not only compiles the existing calibration methods but also presents a novel calibration algorithm in Langley sun-photometry over low altitude sites which conventionally is a common practice performed at high observatory stations. The proposed algorithm avoids travelling to high altitudes for frequent calibration that is difficult both in logistics and financial prospects. We addressed the problem by combining clear-sky detection model and statistical filter to strictly imitate the ideal clear-sky condition at high altitude for measurements taken over low altitudes. In this way, the possible temporal atmospheric drifts, abundant aerosol loadings and short time interval cloud transits are properly constrained. We believe that this finding has an integral part of practicality and versatility in ground-based aerosol optical depth measurement, which is nowadays an important climate agent in many atmospheric studies. Finally, the outcome of this book introduces a new calibration technique for the study and measurement of aerosol monitoring with emphasis on aerosol optical depth that we believe could be very beneficial to researchers and scientists in the similar area.

Aeolian Geomorphology

Author: Livingstone
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781118945667
Size: 62.50 MB
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A revised introduction to aeolian geomorphology written by noted experts in the field The new, revised and updated edition of Aeolian Geomorphology offers a concise and highly accessible introduction to the subject. The text covers the topics of deserts and coastlines, as well as periglacial and planetary landforms. The authors review the range of aeolian characteristics that include soil erosion and its consequences, continental scale dust storms, sand dunes and loess. Aeolian Geomorphology explores the importance of aeolian processes in the past, and the application of knowledge about aeolian geomorphology in environmental management. The new edition includes contributions from eighteen experts from four continents. All the chapters demonstrate huge advances in observation, measurement and mathematical modelling. For example, the chapter on sand seas shows the impact of greatly enhanced and accessible remote sensing and the chapter on active dunes clearly demonstrates the impact of improvements in field techniques. Other examples reveal the power of greatly improved laboratory techniques. This important text: Offers a comprehensive review of aeolian geomorphology Contains contributions from an international panel of eighteen experts in the field Includes the results of the most recent research on the topic Filled with illustrative examples that demonstrate the advances in laboratory approaches Written for students and professionals in the field, Aeolian Geomorphology provides a comprehensive introduction to the topic in twelve new chapters with contributions from noted experts in the field.

The Evolution Of The Chilean Argentinean Andes

Author: Andrés Folguera
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319677748
Size: 24.59 MB
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This book describes the Mesozoic to Cenozoic evolution of the Chilean and Argentinean Andes. The book is structured from a historical perspective concentrating on specific processes explained in each chapter. The chapters cover dynamic subsidence; neotectonics; magmatism; long and short term deformation; spatial development of ancient orogenic processes that control Andean reactivations; relation between ocean bathymetry and deformation. Sources of detritus through Andean construction are discussed by specialists from both sides of the Southern Andes. This book provides up-to-date reviews, maps, evolutionary schemes and extensive reference lists useful for geoscientists and students in Earth Science fields.

Data Science For Transport

Author: Charles Fox
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319729535
Size: 43.38 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The quantity, diversity and availability of transport data is increasing rapidly, requiring new skills in the management and interrogation of data and databases. Recent years have seen a new wave of "big data", "Data Science", and "smart cities" changing the world, with the Harvard Business Review describing Data Science as the "sexiest job of the 21st century". Transportation professionals and researchers need to be able to use data and databases in order to establish quantitative, empirical facts, and to validate and challenge their mathematical models, whose axioms have traditionally often been assumed rather than rigorously tested against data. This book takes a highly practical approach to learning about Data Science tools and their application to investigating transport issues. The focus is principally on practical, professional work with real data and tools, including business and ethical issues. "Transport modeling practice was developed in a data poor world, and many of our current techniques and skills are building on that sparsity. In a new data rich world, the required tools are different and the ethical questions around data and privacy are definitely different. I am not sure whether current professionals have these skills; and I am certainly not convinced that our current transport modeling tools will survive in a data rich environment. This is an exciting time to be a data scientist in the transport field. We are trying to get to grips with the opportunities that big data sources offer; but at the same time such data skills need to be fused with an understanding of transport, and of transport modeling. Those with these combined skills can be instrumental at providing better, faster, cheaper data for transport decision- making; and ultimately contribute to innovative, efficient, data driven modeling techniques of the future. It is not surprising that this course, this book, has been authored by the Institute for Transport Studies. To do this well, you need a blend of academic rigor and practical pragmatism. There are few educational or research establishments better equipped to do that than ITS Leeds". - Tom van Vuren, Divisional Director, Mott MacDonald "WSP is proud to be a thought leader in the world of transport modelling, planning and economics, and has a wide range of opportunities for people with skills in these areas. The evidence base and forecasts we deliver to effectively implement strategies and schemes are ever more data and technology focused a trend we have helped shape since the 1970's, but with particular disruption and opportunity in recent years. As a result of these trends, and to suitably skill the next generation of transport modellers, we asked the world-leading Institute for Transport Studies, to boost skills in these areas, and they have responded with a new MSc programme which you too can now study via this book." - Leighton Cardwell, Technical Director, WSP. "From processing and analysing large datasets, to automation of modelling tasks sometimes requiring different software packages to "talk" to each other, to data visualization, SYSTRA employs a range of techniques and tools to provide our clients with deeper insights and effective solutions. This book does an excellent job in giving you the skills to manage, interrogate and analyse databases, and develop powerful presentations. Another important publication from ITS Leeds." - Fitsum Teklu, Associate Director (Modelling & Appraisal) SYSTRA Ltd "Urban planning has relied for decades on statistical and computational practices that have little to do with mainstream data science. Information is still often used as evidence on the impact of new infrastructure even when it hardly contains any valid evidence. This book is an extremely welcome effort to provide young professionals with the skills needed to analyse how cities and transport networks actually work. The book is also highly relevant toanyone who will later want to build digital solutions to optimise urban travelbased on emerging data sources". - Yaron Hollander, author of "Transport Modelling for a Complete Beginner"

A Photographic Atlas Of Flood Basalt Volcanism

Author: Hetu Sheth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319677055
Size: 14.91 MB
Format: PDF
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This unique book presents hundreds of spectacular photographs of large-scale to small-scale field geological features of flood basalt volcanism from around the world. Major flood basalt provinces covered in this book include the British Palaeogene, Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Columbia River, Deccan, East Greenland, Emeishan, Ethiopian, Ferrar-Karoo-Tasmania, Iceland, Indo-Madagascar, Paraná, Siberian, West Greenland, and others. Intermediate- to small-sized flood basalts (such as Saudi Arabia and South Caucasus) are also included. Different chapters of the book illustrate varied features of flood basalts, including landscapes, lava flow morphology and stacking, structures formed during lava flow transport, inflation and degassing, structures produced during lava solidification, subaqueous volcanism and volcanosedimentary associations, explosive volcanism, intrusions, igneous processes and magmatic diversity, tectonic deformation, secondary mineralization, and weathering and erosion. This book will be valuable for a large audience: specialists studying flood basalt volcanology, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, and environmental impact and mass extinction links; nonspecialists who want to know more about flood basalts; field geologists (such as those working in geological surveys); students of volcanology and igneous petrology, and even people employed in the industry, such as those working on flood basalt-hosted groundwater or petroleum reservoirs.

The Geography Nature And History Of The Tropical Pacific And Its Islands

Author: Walter M. Goldberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319695320
Size: 16.66 MB
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This volume provides an accessible scientific introduction to the historical geography of Tropical Pacific Islands, assessing the environmental and cultural changes they have undergone and how they are affected currently by these shifts and alterations. The book emphasizes the roles of plants, animals, people, and the environment in shaping the tropical Pacific through a cross-disciplinary approach involving history, geography, biology, environmental science, and anthropology. With these diverse scientific perspectives, the eight chapters of the book provide a comprehensive overview of Tropical Pacific Islands from their initial colonization by native peoples to their occupation by colonial powers, and the contemporary changes that have affected the natural history and social fabric of these islands. The Tropical Pacific Islands are introduced by a description of their geological formation, development, and geography. From there, the book details the origins of the island's original peoples and the dawn of the political economy of these islands, including the domestication and trade of plants, animals, and other natural resources. Next, readers will learn about the impact of missionaries on Pacific Islands, and the affects of Wold War II and nuclear testing on natural resources and the health of its people. The final chapter discusses the islands in the context of natural resource extraction, population increases, and global climate change. Working together these factors are shown to affect rainfall and limited water resources, as well as the ability to sustain traditional crops, and the capacity of the islands to accomodate its residents.

Urban Morphology

Author: Vítor Oliveira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319320831
Size: 60.68 MB
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This is a book about cities or, more precisely, about the physical form of cities. It starts presenting the main elements of urban form – streets, urban blocks, plots and buildings – structuring our cities and the fundamental actors and processes of transformation shaping these elements. It then applies this analytical framework to describe the evolution of cities over history as well as to explain the functioning of contemporary cities. After the initial focus on the ‘object’ (cities) the book describes how different researchers and different schools of thought have been dealing with this object since the emergence of Urban Morphology, as the science of urban form, in the turning to the twentieth century. Finally, the book tries to identify what are the most important (and specific) contributions that Urban Morphology has to offer to contemporary cities, societies and economies.

The Emergence Of Eternal Life

Author: William J. Hoye
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110704121X
Size: 60.54 MB
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Seeks to understand and defend the concept of eternal life, and our human longing for fulfilment and happiness.

Spain S Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994378
Size: 31.65 MB
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Desert Geomorphology

Author: Ronald U. Cooke
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203020593
Size: 33.41 MB
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Including recent research findings from terrestrial satellite imagery, the study of planetary landscapes, and advances in laboratory work, this also covers the environmental processes involved in desertification and the solution of planning and