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Guidelines For Enabling Conditions And Conditional Modifiers In Layer Of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118777948
Size: 27.84 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in 2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediate method between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis and more quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides an order-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducible results. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safety integrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces the limitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of the guideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provide concrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to use these concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizes terminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of a typical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the most common types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to risk criteria as well as their application to other methods.

Guidelines For Initiating Events And Independent Protection Layers In Layer Of Protection Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118948726
Size: 60.74 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) practitioners. It explains the onion skin model and in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the need for non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. It provides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs) that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using the LOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for risk reductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e. administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. It addresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness and maintain reliability for administrative controls or “inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human Reliability Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits and Assessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA and SIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as the following: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhanced maintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but before an incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting off the pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closing block valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dike preventing contamination of groundwater (passive).

Guidelines For Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis

Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119010160
Size: 78.93 MB
Format: PDF
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8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Analog Und Digital

Author: Otl Aicher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3433605920
Size: 45.99 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Otl Aicher (1922-1991) war einer der herausragenden Vertreter des modernen Designs. Was er seit den 1950er Jahren, seit seiner Zeit an der von ihm mitbegr?ndeten und heute legend?ren Ulmer Hochschule f?r Gestaltung, etwa auf dem Gebiet des Corporate Design, geschaffen hat - erinnert sei hier nur an die Erscheinungsbilder f?r die Firma Braun, die Lufthansa, das Zweite Deutsche Fernsehen und die Firma ERCO, geh?rt zu den ganz gro?en Leistungen der visuellen Kultur unserer Zeit. Mit einer aktuellen Einf?hrung von Wilhelm Vossenkuhl: "Ein wesentlicher Aspekt der Arbeiten von Aicher ist deren Verankerung in einer von Denkern wie Ockham, Kant oder Wittgenstein inspirierten "Philosophie des Machens", die die Voraussetzungen und Ziele sowie die Gegenst?nde und Anspr?che von Gestaltung zum Thema hat. Aichers Schriften zu Fragen des Designs (wobei hier alle Bereiche der visuellen Gestaltung bis hin zur Architektur gemeint sind) liegen in diesem Band in geschlossener Form vor. Wenn Aicher das Analoge und Konkrete dem Digitalen und Abstrakten vorzieht, tut er dies mit philosophischer Absicht. Er relativiert die Rolle der reinen Vernunft. Er kritisiert den Rationalismus der Moderne als Ergebnis der Vorherrschaft des blo? abstrakten Denkens. Wer das Abstrakte dem Konkreten vorzieht, missversteht nicht nur die wechselseitige Abh?ngigkeit von Begriff und Anschauung. Er schafft nach Aichers Urteil auch eine falsche Hierarchie, eine Rangordnung, die kulturell verh?ngnisvoll ist. das digitale, Abstrakte ist nicht h?her, gr??er und wichtiger als das Analoge, Konkrete." W. Vossenkuhl