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Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

Author: F. Zapata
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306480549
Size: 65.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Handbook Of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Mark Baskaran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642106378
Size: 37.62 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and near-earth surface processes. The utility of the isotopes are ever-increasing and our sole focus is to bring out the applications of these isotopes as tracers and chronometers to a wider audience so that they can be used as powerful tools to solve environmental problems. New developments in this field remain mostly in peer-reviewed journal articles and hence our goal is to synthesize these findings for easy reference for students, faculty, regulators in governmental and non-governmental agencies, and environmental companies. While this volume maintains its rigor in terms of its depth of knowledge and quantitative information, it contains the breadth needed for wide variety problems and applications in the environmental sciences. This volume presents all of the newer and older applications of isotopes pertaining to the environmental problems in one place that is readily accessible to readers. This book not only has the depth and rigor that is needed for academia, but it has the breadth and case studies to illustrate the utility of the isotopes in a wide variety of environments (atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers and streams, terrestrial environments, and sub-surface environments) and serves a large audience, from students and researchers, regulators in federal, state and local governments, and environmental companies.

Environmental Radionuclides

Author: Klaus Froehlich
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080913292
Size: 39.16 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Use Of 137cs For Soil Erosion Assessment

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 925130050X
Size: 25.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Soil erosion is the most destructive land degradation process causing removal of soil, siltation of water reservoirs and pollution of water sources. Combating erosion needs reliable data on soil erosion rates, its dynamics and spatial distribution. Collecting such data with conventional methods requires great investment and long period of time. The 137Cs method for erosion assessment can address this problem. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the IAEA has been working on this method for more than 20 years. This publication provides a brief guidance on this method. It covers major components of 137Cs method starting from its principles, the sampling strategy, gamma spectroscopic measurements, estimation of erosion rates with conversion models, data interpretation and the use of 137Cs method for erosion models validation. The publication is suitable for a wide audience such as researchers, agricultural and environmental experts, decision makers, farmers and students

Slope Stability And Erosion Control Ecotechnological Solutions

Author: Joanne E. Norris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402066764
Size: 46.84 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book aims to assist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. The book reviews the types of problematic slopes that may occur and describes briefly the nature of mass movements and the causes of these movements. There is focus on the use of vegetation to stabilize soil on slopes prone to mass movements. The book also introduces new ecotechnological methods, and case studies are discussed.

Handbook Of Erosion Modelling

Author: R. P. C. Morgan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444348019
Size: 27.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The movement of sediment and associated pollutants over the landscape and into water bodies is of increasing concern with respect to pollution control, prevention of muddy floods and environmental protection. In addition, the loss of soil on site has implications for declining agricultural productivity, loss of biodiversity and decreased amenity and landscape value. The fate of sediment and the conservation of soil are important issues for land managers and decision-makers. In developing appropriate policies and solutions, managers and researchers are making greater use of erosion models to characterise the processes of erosion and their interaction with the landscape. A study of erosion requires one to think in terms of microseconds to understand the mechanics of impact of a single raindrop on a soil surface, while landscapes form over periods of thousands of years. These processes operate on scales of millimetres for single raindrops to mega-metres for continents. Erosion modelling thus covers quite a lot of ground. This book introduces the conceptual and mathematical frameworks used to formulate models of soil erosion and uses case studies to show how models are applied to a variety of purposes at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The aim is to provide land managers and others with the tools required to select a model appropriate to the type and scale of erosion problem, to show what users can expect in terms of accuracy of model predictions and to provide an appreciation of both the advantages and limitations of models. Problems covered include those arising from agriculture, the construction industry, pollution and climatic change and range in scale from farms to small and large catchments. The book will also be useful to students and research scientists as an up-to-date review of the state-of-art of erosion modelling and, through a knowledge of how models are used in practice, in highlighting the gaps in knowledge that need to be filled in order to develop even better models.

Principles And Practice Of Soil Science

Author: Robert E. White
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118685733
Size: 52.43 MB
Format: PDF
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Principles and Practice of Soil Science, Fourth Editionprovides a current and comprehensive introduction to soil science for students in the fields of environmental and agricultural science, ecology, soil and land management, natural resource management and environmental engineering. Covers all aspects of soil science including soil habitat, processes in the soil environment and soil management. Emphasizes the applications of soil science to the solution of practical problems in soil and land management. Highlights real world examples drawn from the author’s international experience in the field. Includes an expanded colour section of soil profiles and other features, and greater coverage of international soil classification Features new problem sets and questions at the end of each chapter, designed to reinforce important principles. An answer key is provided at the end of the text. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/white