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Handbook For The Assessment Of Soil Erosion And Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

Author: F. Zapata
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306480549
Size: 17.89 MB
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This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Handbook Of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Mark Baskaran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642106378
Size: 47.87 MB
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Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and near-earth surface processes. The utility of the isotopes are ever-increasing and our sole focus is to bring out the applications of these isotopes as tracers and chronometers to a wider audience so that they can be used as powerful tools to solve environmental problems. New developments in this field remain mostly in peer-reviewed journal articles and hence our goal is to synthesize these findings for easy reference for students, faculty, regulators in governmental and non-governmental agencies, and environmental companies. While this volume maintains its rigor in terms of its depth of knowledge and quantitative information, it contains the breadth needed for wide variety problems and applications in the environmental sciences. This volume presents all of the newer and older applications of isotopes pertaining to the environmental problems in one place that is readily accessible to readers. This book not only has the depth and rigor that is needed for academia, but it has the breadth and case studies to illustrate the utility of the isotopes in a wide variety of environments (atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers and streams, terrestrial environments, and sub-surface environments) and serves a large audience, from students and researchers, regulators in federal, state and local governments, and environmental companies.

Environmental Radionuclides

Author: Klaus Froehlich
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080913292
Size: 40.65 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Soil Erosion And Sediment Redistribution In River Catchments

Author: Philip Neil Owens
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 0851990509
Size: 48.45 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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There can be little doubt that issues relating to soils and sediments are moving up the political agenda, and a realization that we need to collectively manage and protect both soil and water resources. In order to manage this delicate interface, attention is being increasingly directed towards holistic land-river management, demanding a greater appreciation of the interaction between soils and sediments. This book reviews the major achievements recently made in soil erosion and sediment redistribution research and management, and identifies future requirements.

Linking Gender To Climate Change Impacts In The Global South

Author: Shouraseni Sen Roy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319757776
Size: 49.98 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This authored book assesses the spatial patterns of climate change and gender inequalities across the Global South, and analyzes the disproportionate impacts that climate change processes have on women in these regions. Though many books attempt to incorporate gender issues into climate change, this book examines the issue as a whole by addressing the relationship between climate change and gender from a number of perspectives. The book incorporates case studies from various regions of the Global South, a designation broadly defined as the countries of Africa, Middle and South America, and most of Asia including the Middle East. In the book's two main sections, readers will learn about how climate change affects access to regional opportunities and resources, the obstacles created by climate change that affect women more strongly than men, and how affected female populations adapt to changing conditions and protect their local livelihoods. Section one, covering chapters 1 and 2, addresses the spatial patterns of climate change and gender inequalities/inequities across the Global South by analyzing long-term trends from the latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the World Economic forum. Section two, covering chapters 3 through 7, discusses the critical issues related to climate change and gender inequality, and presents literature reviews and case studies in the Global South. The different issues and perspectives discussed include health, water and food security, education, conflicts, migration, participation in decision-making processes, and changing urban social landscapes. The concluding chapter discusses policy initiatives and makes recommendations to some of the gender mainstreaming through empowerment and participation. This interdisciplinary book will appeal to academics and policy-makers beyond just the fields of environmental sciences and gender studies, and may be adopted as a resource for graduate students and researchers.

Principles And Practice Of Soil Science

Author: Robert E. White
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118685733
Size: 53.89 MB
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Principles and Practice of Soil Science, Fourth Editionprovides a current and comprehensive introduction to soil science for students in the fields of environmental and agricultural science, ecology, soil and land management, natural resource management and environmental engineering. Covers all aspects of soil science including soil habitat, processes in the soil environment and soil management. Emphasizes the applications of soil science to the solution of practical problems in soil and land management. Highlights real world examples drawn from the author’s international experience in the field. Includes an expanded colour section of soil profiles and other features, and greater coverage of international soil classification Features new problem sets and questions at the end of each chapter, designed to reinforce important principles. An answer key is provided at the end of the text. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/white

Handbook Of Erosion Modelling

Author: R. P. C. Morgan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444348019
Size: 31.99 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The movement of sediment and associated pollutants over the landscape and into water bodies is of increasing concern with respect to pollution control, prevention of muddy floods and environmental protection. In addition, the loss of soil on site has implications for declining agricultural productivity, loss of biodiversity and decreased amenity and landscape value. The fate of sediment and the conservation of soil are important issues for land managers and decision-makers. In developing appropriate policies and solutions, managers and researchers are making greater use of erosion models to characterise the processes of erosion and their interaction with the landscape. A study of erosion requires one to think in terms of microseconds to understand the mechanics of impact of a single raindrop on a soil surface, while landscapes form over periods of thousands of years. These processes operate on scales of millimetres for single raindrops to mega-metres for continents. Erosion modelling thus covers quite a lot of ground. This book introduces the conceptual and mathematical frameworks used to formulate models of soil erosion and uses case studies to show how models are applied to a variety of purposes at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The aim is to provide land managers and others with the tools required to select a model appropriate to the type and scale of erosion problem, to show what users can expect in terms of accuracy of model predictions and to provide an appreciation of both the advantages and limitations of models. Problems covered include those arising from agriculture, the construction industry, pollution and climatic change and range in scale from farms to small and large catchments. The book will also be useful to students and research scientists as an up-to-date review of the state-of-art of erosion modelling and, through a knowledge of how models are used in practice, in highlighting the gaps in knowledge that need to be filled in order to develop even better models.