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Handbook Of Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Ananda S. Amarasekara
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118878426
Size: 70.32 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Comprehensive coverage on the growing science and technologyof producing ethanol from the world's abundant cellulosicbiomass The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and its impact ongasoline prices, combined with climate change concerns, havecontributed to current interest in renewable fuels. Bioethanol isthe most successful renewable transport fuel—with corn andsugarcane ethanol currently in wide use as blend-in fuels in theUnited States, Brazil, and a few other countries. However, thereare a number of major drawbacks in these first-generation biofuels,such as their effect on food prices, net energy balance, and poorgreenhouse gas mitigation. Alternatively, cellulosic ethanol can beproduced from abundant lignocellulosic biomass forms such asagricultural or municipal wastes, forest residues, fast growingtrees, or grasses grown in marginal lands, and should be produciblein substantial amounts to meet growing global energy demand. The Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol covers all aspects ofthis new and vital alternative fuel source, providing readers withthe background, scientific theory, and recent research progress inproducing cellulosic ethanol via different biochemical routes, aswell as future directions. The seventeen chapters includeinformation on: Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over first-generation ethanolas a transportation fuel Various biomass feedstocks that can be used to make cellulosicethanol Details of the aqueous phase or cellulolysis route,pretreatment, enzyme or acid saccharification, fermentation,simultaneous saccharification fermentation, consolidatedbioprocessing, genetically modified microorganisms, and yeasts Details of the syngas fermentation or thermochemical route,gasifiers, syngas cleaning, microorganisms for syngas fermentation,and chemical catalysts for syngas-to-ethanol conversion Distillation and dehydration to fuel-grade ethanol Techno-economical aspects and the future of cellulosicethanol Readership Chemical engineers, chemists, and technicians working onrenewable energy and fuels in industry, research institutions, anduniversities. The Handbook can also be used by studentsinterested in biofuels and renewable energy issues.

Handbook On Bioethanol

Author: Charles Wyman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781560325536
Size: 56.73 MB
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Bioethanol is a versatile transportation fuel and fuel additive that offers excellent performance and reduced air pollution compared to conventional fuels. Its production and use adds little, if any, net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, dramatically reducing the potential for global climate change. Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate widespread commercial applications. Written by engineers and scientists providing a technical focus, this handbook provides the up-to-date information needed by managers, engineers, and scientists to evaluate the technology, market, and economics of this fuel, while examining the development of production required to support its commercial use.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Crop Plants

Author: Chittaranjan Kole
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439816859
Size: 42.70 MB
Format: PDF
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As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.

Handbook Of Clean Energy Systems 6 Volume Set

Author: Jinyue Yan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118388585
Size: 48.89 MB
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The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.

Handbook Of Plant Based Biofuels

Author: Ashok Pandey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780789038746
Size: 73.61 MB
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Explores Worldwide Trends Involving the Production and Use of Biofuels With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. Introduction to Biofuels After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods. It examines the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquids and gaseous fuels. Production of Bioethanol The handbook then analyzes current biomass-to-ethanol programs, followed by a discussion on ethanol fermentation from molasses and process practices applied for the improvement of ethanol production by ethanologenic microorganisms. It also explains the hydrolysis and fermentation of ethanol from starchy and lignocellulosic biomasses. Production of Biodiesel In the final chapters, the contributors discuss current perspectives and the future of biodiesel production. They explore biodiesel production substrates, the lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel, and biodiesel production with supercritical fluid technologies.

Handbook Of Alternative Fuel Technologies Second Edition

Author: Sunggyu Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466594578
Size: 36.82 MB
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While strides are being made in the research and development of environmentally acceptable and more sustainable alternative fuels—including efforts to reduce emissions of air pollutants associated with combustion processes from electric power generation and vehicular transportation—fossil fuel resources are limited and may soon be on the verge of depletion in the near future. Measuring the correlation between quality of life, energy consumption, and the efficient utilization of energy, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition thoroughly examines the science and technology of alternative fuels and their processing technologies. It focuses specifically on environmental, technoeconomic, and socioeconomic issues associated with the use of alternative energy sources, such as sustainability, applicable technologies, modes of utilization, and impacts on society. Written with research and development scientists and engineers in mind, the material in this handbook provides a detailed description and an assessment of available and feasible technologies, environmental health and safety issues, governmental regulations, and issues and agendas for R&D. It also includes alternative energy networks for production, distribution, and consumption. What’s New in This Edition: Contains several new chapters of emerging interest and updates various chapters throughout Includes coverage of coal gasification and liquefaction, hydrogen technology and safety, shale fuel by hydraulic fracturing, ethanol from lignocellulosics, biodiesel, algae fuels, and energy from waste products Covers statistics, current concerns, and future trends A single-volume complete reference, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition contains relevant information on chemistry, technology, and novel approaches, as well as scientific foundations for further enhancements and breakthroughs. In addition to its purposes as a handbook for practicing scientists and engineers, it can also be used as a textbook or as a reference book on fuel science and engineering, energy and environment, chemical process design, and energy and environmental policy.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Economics And Policy Volume Ii

Author: Madhu Khanna
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493969064
Size: 56.19 MB
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In its second volume, this book aims to link the academic research with development in the real world and provide a historical and institutional background that can enrich more formal research. The first section will include an assessment of the evolution and the state of the nascent second-generation biofuel as well as a perspective on the evolution of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. It will also include a historical and institutional background on the biofuel industry in Brazil that has global lessons, and later, provide a technical overview of major analytical tools used to assess the economic, land use and greenhouse gas implications of biofuel policies at a regional and global level. Additionally, the book analyzes the various drivers for land use change both at a micro-economic level and at a macro-economic level. It presents studies that apply regional and global economic models to examine the effects of biofuel policies in the US, EU and Brazil on regional and global land use, on food and fuel prices and greenhouse gas emissions. These papers illustrate the use of partial and general equilibrium modeling approaches to simulate the effects of various biofuel policies, and includes studies showing the effects of risk aversion, time preferences and liquidity constraints on farmers decision to grow energy crops for biofuel production. By presenting the tools of lifecycle analysis for assessing the direct greenhouse gas intensity of biofuels, this handbook investigates the types of indirect or market mediated effects that can offset or strengthen these direct effects. It will include tools to assess the direct and indirect effects of biofuel production on greenhouse gas emissions in the US and Brazil, and ultimately provide a comprehensive background to understand the state of biofuel in the present and how to analyze their implication.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Economics And Policy

Author: Madhu Khanna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441903693
Size: 56.71 MB
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Concerns about energy security, uncertainty about oil prices, declining oil reserves, and global climate change are fueling a shift towards bioenergy as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Public policies and private investments around the globe are aiming to increase local capacity to produce biofuels. A key constraint to the expansion of biofuel production is the limited amount of land available to meet the needs for fuel, feed, and food in the coming decades. Large-scale biofuel production raises concerns about food versus fuel tradeoffs, about demands for natural resources such as water, and about potential impacts on environmental quality. The book is organized into five parts. The introductory part provides a context for the emerging economic and policy challenges related to bioenergy and the motivations for biofuels as an energy source. The second part of the handbook includes chapters that examine the implications of expanded production of first generation biofuels for the allocation of land between food and fuel and for food/feed prices and trade in biofuels as well as the potential for technology improvements to mitigate the food vs. fuel competition for land. Chapters in the third part examine the infrastructural and logistical challenges posed by large scale biofuel production and the factors that will influence the location of biorefineries and the mix of feedstocks they use. The fourth part includes chapters that examine the environmental implications of biofuels, their implications for the design of policies and the unintended environmental consequences of existing biofuel policies. The final part presents economic analysis of the market, social welfare, and distributional effects of biofuel policies.

The Biodiesel Handbook

Author: Gerhard Knothe
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0983507260
Size: 51.64 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The second edition of this invaluable handbook covers converting vegetable oils, animal fats, and used oils into biodiesel fuel. The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental impacts, as well as the status of the biodiesel industry worldwide. Incorporates the major research and other developments in the world of biodiesel in a comprehensive and practical format Includes reference materials and tables on biodiesel standards, unit conversions, and technical details in four appendices Presents details on other uses of biodiesel and other alternative diesel fuels from oils and fats

Handbook Of Bioenergy Crops

Author: N. El Bassam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136543635
Size: 72.92 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Biomass currently accounts for about fifteen per cent of global primary energy consumption and is playing an increasingly important role in the face of climate change, energy and food security concerns. Handbook of Bioenergy Crops is a unique reference and guide, with extensive coverage of more than eighty of the main bioenergy crop species. For each it gives a brief description, outlines the ecological requirements, methods of propagation, crop management, rotation and production, harvesting, handling and storage, processing and utilization, then finishes with selected references. This is accompanied by detailed guides to biomass accumulation, harvesting, transportation and storage, as well as conversion technologies for biofuels and an examination of the environmental impact and economic and social dimensions, including prospects for renewable energy. This is an indispensable resource for all those involved in biomass production, utilization and research.