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Handbook Of Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Ananda S. Amarasekara
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118878426
Size: 22.73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Comprehensive coverage on the growing science and technology of producing ethanol from the world's abundant cellulosic biomass The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and its impact on gasoline prices, combined with climate change concerns, have contributed to current interest in renewable fuels. Bioethanol is the most successful renewable transport fuel—with corn and sugarcane ethanol currently in wide use as blend-in fuels in the United States, Brazil, and a few other countries. However, there are a number of major drawbacks in these first-generation biofuels, such as their effect on food prices, net energy balance, and poor greenhouse gas mitigation. Alternatively, cellulosic ethanol can be produced from abundant lignocellulosic biomass forms such as agricultural or municipal wastes, forest residues, fast growing trees, or grasses grown in marginal lands, and should be producible in substantial amounts to meet growing global energy demand. The Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol covers all aspects of this new and vital alternative fuel source, providing readers with the background, scientific theory, and recent research progress in producing cellulosic ethanol via different biochemical routes, as well as future directions. The seventeen chapters include information on: Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over first-generation ethanol as a transportation fuel Various biomass feedstocks that can be used to make cellulosic ethanol Details of the aqueous phase or cellulolysis route, pretreatment, enzyme or acid saccharification, fermentation, simultaneous saccharification fermentation, consolidated bioprocessing, genetically modified microorganisms, and yeasts Details of the syngas fermentation or thermochemical route, gasifiers, syngas cleaning, microorganisms for syngas fermentation, and chemical catalysts for syngas-to-ethanol conversion Distillation and dehydration to fuel-grade ethanol Techno-economical aspects and the future of cellulosic ethanol Readership Chemical engineers, chemists, and technicians working on renewable energy and fuels in industry, research institutions, and universities. The Handbook can also be used by students interested in biofuels and renewable energy issues.

Handbook On Bioethanol

Author: Charles Wyman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781560325536
Size: 55.11 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Bioethanol is a versatile transportation fuel and fuel additive that offers excellent performance and reduced air pollution compared to conventional fuels. Its production and use adds little, if any, net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, dramatically reducing the potential for global climate change. Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate widespread commercial applications. Written by engineers and scientists providing a technical focus, this handbook provides the up-to-date information needed by managers, engineers, and scientists to evaluate the technology, market, and economics of this fuel, while examining the development of production required to support its commercial use.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Crop Plants

Author: Chittaranjan Kole
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439816859
Size: 41.16 MB
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As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.

Handbook Of Biofuels Production

Author: Rafael Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857090496
Size: 76.90 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In response to the global increase in the use of biofuels as substitute transportation fuels, advanced chemical, biochemical and thermochemical biofuels production routes are fast being developed. Research and development in this field is aimed at improving the quality and environmental impact of biofuels production, as well as the overall efficiency and output of biofuels production plants. The range of biofuels has also increased to supplement bioethanol and biodiesel production, with market developments leading to the increased production and utilisation of such biofuels as biosyngas, biohydrogen and biobutanol, among others. Handbook of biofuels production provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technology. Part one reviews the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development. Part two reviews chemical and biochemical conversion and in turn Part three reviews thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, with both sections detailing the wide range of processes and technologies applicable to the production of first, second and third generation biofuels. Finally, Part four reviews developments in the integration of biofuels production, including biorefineries and by-product valorisation, as well as the utilisation of biofuels in diesel engines. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Handbook of biofuels production is a standard reference for biofuels production engineers, industrial chemists and biochemists, plant scientists, academics and researchers in this area. A comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technologies Addresses the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development Reviews chemical and bio-chemical conversion techniques as well as thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, detailing the range of processes and technologies applicable to biofuels production

Ethanol In America The Growth Of The Cellulosic Ethanol Industry And The Doe Handbook On E85 The Alternative Fuel For Advanced Vehicles

Author: Department of Energy (DOE)
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781980462446
Size: 13.33 MB
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Here is unique information about ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and E85 fuels from the DOE. Contents: Part 1: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85; Part 2: Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry.E85 Handbook: This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 as an alternative motor fuel. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and offers supporting technical and policy references. E85 is an alternative motor fuel authorized by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, Section 301(2). As defined by EPAct, E85 is composed of 85% fuel grade ethanol and 15% hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range. Ethanol is a renewable, domestically produced fuel that can be made from grains, such as corn or wheat, or from biomass or cellulose sources, such as prairie grass and agricultural, forestry, or municipal waste matter. Several research studies show that E85 has the potential to substantially reduce petroleum fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Driven by increasing gasoline prices, the market for E85 is growing. With consumer demand for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) increasing, auto manufacturers are working to produce more flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which are capable of operating on E85 or gasoline or a combination of the two. As of May 2010, there were 8.35 million FFVs on U.S. roads, and automakers were planning to produce several million more each year. FFVs are available in most vehicle classes, including sedans, minivans, trucks, and sport utility vehicles. The number of E85 fueling stations is growing rapidly nationwide. As of June 2010, there were 2,051 retail stations (out of 162,000 nationwide) offering E85 across the country. Several key factors affecting E85 growth and acceptance were recently addressed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a guidance document to states defining a process by which they could determine whether "Stage II" gasoline vapor recovery equipment would be required for new E85 pumps. In October 2007, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) established standardized testing procedures for E85 fuel dispensers that address the unique properties of alcohol fuels when blended with gasoline. This testing standard (UL Subject 87A) was updated in August 2009. In addition, UL announced equipment listed for E85 use in June 2010.Cellulosic Ethanol Industry: This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact. A prototype version of the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) was used to develop the scenarios. The analysis underlying the scenario-generation exercise focuses on understanding the impact of two types of proposed government policies on the deployment of cellulosic biofuels technologies: Policies focused on reducing operating costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production. These policies include payments to feedstock producers and subsidies associated with production of cellulosic ethanol. Policies focused on reducing capital costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production. These policies include capital subsidies for construction of full-scale cellulosic ethanol production plants.

The Biodiesel Handbook

Author: Gerhard Knothe
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0983507260
Size: 18.38 MB
Format: PDF
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The second edition of this invaluable handbook covers converting vegetable oils, animal fats, and used oils into biodiesel fuel. The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental impacts, as well as the status of the biodiesel industry worldwide. Incorporates the major research and other developments in the world of biodiesel in a comprehensive and practical format Includes reference materials and tables on biodiesel standards, unit conversions, and technical details in four appendices Presents details on other uses of biodiesel and other alternative diesel fuels from oils and fats

Handbook Of Alternative Fuel Technologies Second Edition

Author: Sunggyu Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146659456X
Size: 24.37 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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While strides are being made in the research and development of environmentally acceptable and more sustainable alternative fuels—including efforts to reduce emissions of air pollutants associated with combustion processes from electric power generation and vehicular transportation—fossil fuel resources are limited and may soon be on the verge of depletion in the near future. Measuring the correlation between quality of life, energy consumption, and the efficient utilization of energy, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition thoroughly examines the science and technology of alternative fuels and their processing technologies. It focuses specifically on environmental, technoeconomic, and socioeconomic issues associated with the use of alternative energy sources, such as sustainability, applicable technologies, modes of utilization, and impacts on society. Written with research and development scientists and engineers in mind, the material in this handbook provides a detailed description and an assessment of available and feasible technologies, environmental health and safety issues, governmental regulations, and issues and agendas for R&D. It also includes alternative energy networks for production, distribution, and consumption. What’s New in This Edition: Contains several new chapters of emerging interest and updates various chapters throughout Includes coverage of coal gasification and liquefaction, hydrogen technology and safety, shale fuel by hydraulic fracturing, ethanol from lignocellulosics, biodiesel, algae fuels, and energy from waste products Covers statistics, current concerns, and future trends A single-volume complete reference, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition contains relevant information on chemistry, technology, and novel approaches, as well as scientific foundations for further enhancements and breakthroughs. In addition to its purposes as a handbook for practicing scientists and engineers, it can also be used as a textbook or as a reference book on fuel science and engineering, energy and environment, chemical process design, and energy and environmental policy.

Handbook Of Clean Energy Systems 6 Volume Set

Author: Jinyue Yan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118388585
Size: 72.53 MB
Format: PDF
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The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.

Handbook Of Plant Based Biofuels

Author: Ashok Pandey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780789038746
Size: 11.71 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Explores Worldwide Trends Involving the Production and Use of Biofuels With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. Introduction to Biofuels After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods. It examines the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquids and gaseous fuels. Production of Bioethanol The handbook then analyzes current biomass-to-ethanol programs, followed by a discussion on ethanol fermentation from molasses and process practices applied for the improvement of ethanol production by ethanologenic microorganisms. It also explains the hydrolysis and fermentation of ethanol from starchy and lignocellulosic biomasses. Production of Biodiesel In the final chapters, the contributors discuss current perspectives and the future of biodiesel production. They explore biodiesel production substrates, the lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel, and biodiesel production with supercritical fluid technologies.

Depreciation Handbook

Author: Bruce K. Benesh
Publisher: LexisNexis
ISBN: 0327169362
Size: 47.88 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A convenient eBook that provides comprehensive coverage of federal tax issues related to depreciation, capital planning and a wide variety of tax credits. Everything depreciable is covered: real estate, business equipment and vehicles, intangibles assets, etc. Among the topics covered are: • ACRS--the accelerated cost recovery system; • MACRS--the modified accelerated cost recovery system; • amortization of intangibles under IRC § 197 (e.g., trademarks, copyrights, patents, goodwill, etc.); • depletion; • recapture of investment tax credits; and • use of business and energy credits. Because it is updated yearly, this publication always contains the latest in relevant forms, revenue procedures and tables of statutes and regulations. It is also loaded with practice tips, comments, examples, and IRS forms and tables.