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Handbook Of Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Ananda S. Amarasekara
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118878426
Size: 49.91 MB
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Comprehensive coverage on the growing science and technology of producing ethanol from the world's abundant cellulosic biomass The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and its impact on gasoline prices, combined with climate change concerns, have contributed to current interest in renewable fuels. Bioethanol is the most successful renewable transport fuel—with corn and sugarcane ethanol currently in wide use as blend-in fuels in the United States, Brazil, and a few other countries. However, there are a number of major drawbacks in these first-generation biofuels, such as their effect on food prices, net energy balance, and poor greenhouse gas mitigation. Alternatively, cellulosic ethanol can be produced from abundant lignocellulosic biomass forms such as agricultural or municipal wastes, forest residues, fast growing trees, or grasses grown in marginal lands, and should be producible in substantial amounts to meet growing global energy demand. The Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol covers all aspects of this new and vital alternative fuel source, providing readers with the background, scientific theory, and recent research progress in producing cellulosic ethanol via different biochemical routes, as well as future directions. The seventeen chapters include information on: Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over first-generation ethanol as a transportation fuel Various biomass feedstocks that can be used to make cellulosic ethanol Details of the aqueous phase or cellulolysis route, pretreatment, enzyme or acid saccharification, fermentation, simultaneous saccharification fermentation, consolidated bioprocessing, genetically modified microorganisms, and yeasts Details of the syngas fermentation or thermochemical route, gasifiers, syngas cleaning, microorganisms for syngas fermentation, and chemical catalysts for syngas-to-ethanol conversion Distillation and dehydration to fuel-grade ethanol Techno-economical aspects and the future of cellulosic ethanol Readership Chemical engineers, chemists, and technicians working on renewable energy and fuels in industry, research institutions, and universities. The Handbook can also be used by students interested in biofuels and renewable energy issues.

Handbook On Bioethanol

Author: Charles Wyman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781560325536
Size: 18.45 MB
Format: PDF
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Bioethanol is a versatile transportation fuel and fuel additive that offers excellent performance and reduced air pollution compared to conventional fuels. Its production and use adds little, if any, net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, dramatically reducing the potential for global climate change. Through a sustained research program and an emerging economic competitiveness, the technology for bioethanol production is poised for immediate widespread commercial applications. Written by engineers and scientists providing a technical focus, this handbook provides the up-to-date information needed by managers, engineers, and scientists to evaluate the technology, market, and economics of this fuel, while examining the development of production required to support its commercial use.

Handbook Of Bioenergy Crop Plants

Author: Chittaranjan Kole
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439816859
Size: 50.93 MB
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As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.

Handbook Of Biofuels Production

Author: Rafael Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857090496
Size: 42.19 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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In response to the global increase in the use of biofuels as substitute transportation fuels, advanced chemical, biochemical and thermochemical biofuels production routes are fast being developed. Research and development in this field is aimed at improving the quality and environmental impact of biofuels production, as well as the overall efficiency and output of biofuels production plants. The range of biofuels has also increased to supplement bioethanol and biodiesel production, with market developments leading to the increased production and utilisation of such biofuels as biosyngas, biohydrogen and biobutanol, among others. Handbook of biofuels production provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technology. Part one reviews the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development. Part two reviews chemical and biochemical conversion and in turn Part three reviews thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, with both sections detailing the wide range of processes and technologies applicable to the production of first, second and third generation biofuels. Finally, Part four reviews developments in the integration of biofuels production, including biorefineries and by-product valorisation, as well as the utilisation of biofuels in diesel engines. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Handbook of biofuels production is a standard reference for biofuels production engineers, industrial chemists and biochemists, plant scientists, academics and researchers in this area. A comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technologies Addresses the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development Reviews chemical and bio-chemical conversion techniques as well as thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, detailing the range of processes and technologies applicable to biofuels production

Handbook Of Plant Based Biofuels

Author: Ashok Pandey
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781560221753
Size: 17.67 MB
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Explores Worldwide Trends Involving the Production and Use of Biofuels With the depletion of oil resources as well as the negative environmental impact of fossil fuels, there is much interest in alternative energy sources. Focusing on some of the most important alternate energy sources for the foreseeable future, the Handbook of Plant-Based Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of the production of biofuels, in particular, bioethanol and biodiesel. Introduction to Biofuels After profiling plant-based biofuels, the book gives an overview of the production of biofuels from biomass materials by thermochemical and biochemical methods. It examines the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquids and gaseous fuels. Production of Bioethanol The handbook then analyzes current biomass-to-ethanol programs, followed by a discussion on ethanol fermentation from molasses and process practices applied for the improvement of ethanol production by ethanologenic microorganisms. It also explains the hydrolysis and fermentation of ethanol from starchy and lignocellulosic biomasses. Production of Biodiesel In the final chapters, the contributors discuss current perspectives and the future of biodiesel production. They explore biodiesel production substrates, the lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel, and biodiesel production with supercritical fluid technologies.

Ethanol In America The Growth Of The Cellulosic Ethanol Industry And The Doe Handbook On E85 The Alternative Fuel For Advanced Vehicles

Author: Department of Energy (DOE)
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781980462446
Size: 13.33 MB
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Here is unique information about ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and E85 fuels from the DOE. Contents: Part 1: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85; Part 2: Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry.E85 Handbook: This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 as an alternative motor fuel. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and offers supporting technical and policy references. E85 is an alternative motor fuel authorized by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, Section 301(2). As defined by EPAct, E85 is composed of 85% fuel grade ethanol and 15% hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range. Ethanol is a renewable, domestically produced fuel that can be made from grains, such as corn or wheat, or from biomass or cellulose sources, such as prairie grass and agricultural, forestry, or municipal waste matter. Several research studies show that E85 has the potential to substantially reduce petroleum fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Driven by increasing gasoline prices, the market for E85 is growing. With consumer demand for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) increasing, auto manufacturers are working to produce more flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which are capable of operating on E85 or gasoline or a combination of the two. As of May 2010, there were 8.35 million FFVs on U.S. roads, and automakers were planning to produce several million more each year. FFVs are available in most vehicle classes, including sedans, minivans, trucks, and sport utility vehicles. The number of E85 fueling stations is growing rapidly nationwide. As of June 2010, there were 2,051 retail stations (out of 162,000 nationwide) offering E85 across the country. Several key factors affecting E85 growth and acceptance were recently addressed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a guidance document to states defining a process by which they could determine whether "Stage II" gasoline vapor recovery equipment would be required for new E85 pumps. In October 2007, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) established standardized testing procedures for E85 fuel dispensers that address the unique properties of alcohol fuels when blended with gasoline. This testing standard (UL Subject 87A) was updated in August 2009. In addition, UL announced equipment listed for E85 use in June 2010.Cellulosic Ethanol Industry: This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact. A prototype version of the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) was used to develop the scenarios. The analysis underlying the scenario-generation exercise focuses on understanding the impact of two types of proposed government policies on the deployment of cellulosic biofuels technologies: Policies focused on reducing operating costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production. These policies include payments to feedstock producers and subsidies associated with production of cellulosic ethanol. Policies focused on reducing capital costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production. These policies include capital subsidies for construction of full-scale cellulosic ethanol production plants.

The Biodiesel Handbook

Author: Gerhard Knothe
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0983507260
Size: 63.65 MB
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The second edition of this invaluable handbook covers converting vegetable oils, animal fats, and used oils into biodiesel fuel. The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental impacts, as well as the status of the biodiesel industry worldwide. Incorporates the major research and other developments in the world of biodiesel in a comprehensive and practical format Includes reference materials and tables on biodiesel standards, unit conversions, and technical details in four appendices Presents details on other uses of biodiesel and other alternative diesel fuels from oils and fats

Handbook Of Bioenergy Economics And Policy

Author: Madhu Khanna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441903693
Size: 49.56 MB
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Concerns about energy security, uncertainty about oil prices, declining oil reserves, and global climate change are fueling a shift towards bioenergy as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Public policies and private investments around the globe are aiming to increase local capacity to produce biofuels. A key constraint to the expansion of biofuel production is the limited amount of land available to meet the needs for fuel, feed, and food in the coming decades. Large-scale biofuel production raises concerns about food versus fuel tradeoffs, about demands for natural resources such as water, and about potential impacts on environmental quality. The book is organized into five parts. The introductory part provides a context for the emerging economic and policy challenges related to bioenergy and the motivations for biofuels as an energy source. The second part of the handbook includes chapters that examine the implications of expanded production of first generation biofuels for the allocation of land between food and fuel and for food/feed prices and trade in biofuels as well as the potential for technology improvements to mitigate the food vs. fuel competition for land. Chapters in the third part examine the infrastructural and logistical challenges posed by large scale biofuel production and the factors that will influence the location of biorefineries and the mix of feedstocks they use. The fourth part includes chapters that examine the environmental implications of biofuels, their implications for the design of policies and the unintended environmental consequences of existing biofuel policies. The final part presents economic analysis of the market, social welfare, and distributional effects of biofuel policies.

Lignocellulose Conversion

Author: Vincenza Faraco
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642378617
Size: 67.41 MB
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Bioethanol has been recognized as a potential alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Even if cellulosic biomass is less expensive than corn and sugarcane, the higher costs for its conversion make the near-term price of cellulosic ethanol higher than that of corn ethanol and even more than that of sugarcane ethanol. Conventional process for bioethanol production from lignocellulose includes a chemical/physical pre-treatment of lignocellulose for lignin removal, mostly based on auto hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis, followed by saccharification of the free accessible cellulose portions of the biomass. The highest yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose portion are achieved by means of enzymatic hydrolysis, currently carried out using a mix of cellulases from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Reduction of (hemi)cellulases production costs is strongly required to increase competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production. The final step is the fermentation of sugars obtained from saccharification, typically performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current process is optimized for 6-carbon sugars fermentation, since most of yeasts cannot ferment 5-carbon sugars. Thus, research is aimed at exploring new engineered yeasts abilities to co-ferment 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Among the main routes to advance cellulosic ethanol, consolidate bio-processing, namely direct conversion of biomass into ethanol by a genetically modified microbes, holds tremendous potential to reduce ethanol production costs. Finally, the use of all the components of lignocellulose to produce a large spectra of biobased products is another challenge for further improving competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production, developing a biorefinery.

Handbook Of Alternative Fuel Technologies Second Edition

Author: Sunggyu Lee
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146659456X
Size: 69.13 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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While strides are being made in the research and development of environmentally acceptable and more sustainable alternative fuels—including efforts to reduce emissions of air pollutants associated with combustion processes from electric power generation and vehicular transportation—fossil fuel resources are limited and may soon be on the verge of depletion in the near future. Measuring the correlation between quality of life, energy consumption, and the efficient utilization of energy, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition thoroughly examines the science and technology of alternative fuels and their processing technologies. It focuses specifically on environmental, technoeconomic, and socioeconomic issues associated with the use of alternative energy sources, such as sustainability, applicable technologies, modes of utilization, and impacts on society. Written with research and development scientists and engineers in mind, the material in this handbook provides a detailed description and an assessment of available and feasible technologies, environmental health and safety issues, governmental regulations, and issues and agendas for R&D. It also includes alternative energy networks for production, distribution, and consumption. What’s New in This Edition: Contains several new chapters of emerging interest and updates various chapters throughout Includes coverage of coal gasification and liquefaction, hydrogen technology and safety, shale fuel by hydraulic fracturing, ethanol from lignocellulosics, biodiesel, algae fuels, and energy from waste products Covers statistics, current concerns, and future trends A single-volume complete reference, the Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies, Second Edition contains relevant information on chemistry, technology, and novel approaches, as well as scientific foundations for further enhancements and breakthroughs. In addition to its purposes as a handbook for practicing scientists and engineers, it can also be used as a textbook or as a reference book on fuel science and engineering, energy and environment, chemical process design, and energy and environmental policy.