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Heavy Quarkonium Production Phenomenology And Automation Of One Loop Scattering Amplitude Computations

Author: Hua-Sheng Shao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811016240
Size: 57.58 MB
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This book focuses on the study of heavy quarkonium production at high-energy colliders as a useful tool to explain both the perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of quantum choromodynamics. It provides the first comprehensive comparison between the theory and recent experiments and clarifies some longstanding puzzles in the heavy quarkonium production mechanism. In addition, it describes in detail a new framework for implementing precise computations of the physical observables in quantum field theories based on recently developed techniques. It can be used to simulate the complicated collider environment of the Large Hadron Collider at the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN). Its accomplishment implies that the Monte Carlo simulations for high-energy physics experiments have reached the limits of precision. It offers readers a wealth of valuable information on the relevant techniques.

Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

Author: Mgr.Adam Smetana
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319070738
Size: 11.22 MB
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With this thesis the author contributes to the development of a non-mainstream but long-standing approach to electroweak symmetry breaking based on an analogy with superconductivity. Electroweak symmetry breaking is assumed to be caused by dynamically generated masses of typical fermions, i.e., of quarks and leptons, which in turn assumes a new dynamics between quarks and leptons. Primarily it is designed to generate fermion masses and electroweak symmetry breaking is an automatic consequence. After the summary of the topic, the first main part of the thesis addresses the question as to whether the masses of known quarks and leptons provide sufficiently strong sources of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is demonstrated that neutrino masses subject to the seesaw mechanism are indispensable ingredients. The other two parts of the thesis are dedicated to the presentation of two particular models: The first model is based on the new strong Yukawa dynamics and serves as a platform for studying the ability to reproduce fermion masses. The second, more realistic model introduces a flavor gauge dynamics and its phenomenological consequences are studied. Even though, in the past, this type of models has already been of some interest, following the discovery of the Standard-Model-like Higgs particle, it is regaining its relevance.

Time Symmetry Breaking In Turbulent Multi Particle Dispersion

Author: Jennifer Jucha
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319191926
Size: 19.76 MB
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This thesis presents experimental and theoretical investigations of the connection between the time asymmetry in the short-time evolution of particle clusters and the intrinsic irreversibility of turbulent flows due to the energy cascade. The term turbulence describes a special state of a continuous medium in which many interacting degrees of freedom are excited. One of the interesting phenomena observed in turbulent flows is their time irreversibility. When milk is stirred into coffee, for example, highly complex and interwoven structures are produced, making the mixing process irreversible. This behavior can be analyzed in more detail by studying the dispersion of particle clusters. Previous experimental and numerical studies on the time asymmetry in two-particle dispersion indicate that particles separate faster backwards than forwards in time, but no conclusive explanation has yet been provided. In this thesis, an experimental study on the short-time behavior of two- and four-particle dispersion in a turbulent water flow between two counter-rotating propellers is presented. A brief but rigorous theoretical analysis reveals that the observed time irreversibility is closely linked to the turbulence energy cascade. Additionally, it is demonstrated experimentally that the addition of minute amounts of polymers to the flow has a significant impact on multi-particle dispersion due to an alteration of the energy cascade.

A Primer For Chiral Perturbation Theory

Author: Stefan Scherer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642192548
Size: 52.56 MB
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Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

Quantum Theory Of Magnetism

Author: Wolfgang Nolting
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540854166
Size: 36.52 MB
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Magnetism is one of the oldest and most fundamental problems of Solid State Physics although not being fully understood up to now. On the other hand it is one of the hottest topics of current research. Practically all branches of modern technological developments are based on ferromagnetism, especially what concerns information technology. The book, written in a tutorial style, starts from the fundamental features of atomic magnetism, discusses the essentially single-particle problems of dia- and paramagnetism, in order to provide the basis for the exclusively interesting collective magnetism (ferro, ferri, antiferro). Several types of exchange interactions, which take care under certain preconditions for a collective ordering of localized or itinerant permanent magnetic moments, are worked out. Under which conditions these exchange interactions are able to provoke a collective moment ordering for finite temperatures is investigated within a series of theoretical models, each of them considered for a very special class of magnetic materials. The book is written in a tutorial style appropriate for those who want to learn magnetism and eventually to do research work in this field. Numerous exercises with full solutions for testing own attempts will help to a deep understanding of the main aspects of collective ferromagnetism.

Collider Physics Within The Standard Model

Author: Guido Altarelli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319519204
Size: 66.63 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field. In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses. “These lecture notes are a beautiful example of Guido’s unique pedagogical abilities and scientific vision”. From the Foreword by Gian Giudice

Particles And Nuclei

Author: Bogdan Povh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662463210
Size: 67.22 MB
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This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view. The first part, Analysis, is devoted to disentangling the substructure of matter. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions. The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems. Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modem astrophysics and cosmology.“p> The seventh revised and extended edition includes new material, in particular the experimental verification of the Higgs particle at the LHC, recent results in neutrino physics, the violation of CP-symmetry in the decay of neutral B-mesons, the experimental investigations of the nucleon's spin structure and outstanding results of the HERA experiments in deep-inelastic electron- and positron-proton scattering. The concise text is based on lectures held at the University of Heidelberg and includes numerous exercises with worked answers. It has been translated into several languages and has become a standard reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses.

The Anomalous Magnetic Moment Of The Muon

Author: Fred Jegerlehner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540726330
Size: 43.56 MB
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It seems to be a strange enterprise to attempt write a physics book about a single number. It was not my idea to do so, but why not. In mathematics, maybe, one would write a book about ?. Certainly, the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is a very special number and today re?ects almost the full spectrum of e?ects incorporated in today’s Standard Model (SM) of fun- mental interactions, including the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong forces. The muon g? 2, how it is also called, is a truly fascinating theme both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view and it has played a crucial role in the development of QED which ?nally developed into the SM by successive inclusion of the weak and the strong interactions. The topic has fascinated a large number of particle physicists, last but not least it was always a benchmark for theory as a monitor for e?ects beyond what was known at the time. As an example, nobody could believe that a muon is just a heavy version of an electron; why should nature repeat itself, it hardly can make sense.

Applications Of Computer Algebra

Author: Richard Pavelle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146846888X
Size: 34.82 MB
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Today, certain computer software systems exist which surpass the computational ability of researchers when their mathematical techniques are applied to many areas of science and engineering. These computer systems can perform a large portion of the calculations seen in mathematical analysis. Despite this massive power, thousands of people use these systems as a routine resource for everyday calculations. These software programs are commonly called "Computer Algebra" systems. They have names such as MACSYMA, MAPLE, muMATH, REDUCE and SMP. They are receiving credit as a computational aid with in creasing regularity in articles in the scientific and engineering literature. When most people think about computers and scientific research these days, they imagine a machine grinding away, processing numbers arithmetically. It is not generally realized that, for a number of years, computers have been performing non-numeric computations. This means, for example, that one inputs an equa tion and obtains a closed form analytic answer. It is these Computer Algebra systems, their capabilities, and applications which are the subject of the papers in this volume.