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Herbivorous Insects

Author: Sami Ahmad
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323158242
Size: 76.40 MB
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Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms addresses mechanisms of searching behavior leading ultimately to host location of herbivorous insects. It is divided into four sections, wherein the first two sections deal with neurophysiology and the diversity of behavioral induction cues. The third section covers the searching mechanisms as affected by insects' breadth of diet. The last part examines the evolutionary analysis of the behavioral and physiological adaptations in insect/host plant relations. This book starts with an introduction to the chemical sensory system as it relates to host selection in general. This is followed by considerable discussions on host-seeking behavior and allied patterns in behavior. This text also includes the study of oviposition behavior in butterflies belonging to Papilionidae. The third section presents host selection and colonization by three insects within the saprophage-predator continuum, namely, Hylurgopinus rufipes, Scolytus multistriatus, and Pissodes strobi. The behaviors by which certain oligophagous insects locate and select food plants are also considered. The concluding part addresses the unifying theme and the diversity of responses of phytophagous insects to plants. The book provides direction toward developing a unifying theme and improving the ability to unravel the complexities of insect/plant interactions. Behaviorists, ecologists, entomologists, evolutionary biologists, and physiologists will find this book invaluable.

Host Plant Selection By Phytophagous Insects

Author: Elizabeth A. Bernays
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412031311
Size: 72.11 MB
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For more than 20 years insect/plant relations have been a focus for studies in ecology and evolution. The importance of insects as crop pests, and the great potential of insects for the biological control of weeds, have provided further impetus for work in this area. All this attention has resulted in books on various aspects of the topic, and reviews and research papers are abundant. So why write another book? It seems to us that, in the midst of all this activity, behavior has been neglected. We do not mean to suggest that there have not been admirable papers on behavior. The fact that we can write this book attests to that. But we feel that, too often, behavior is relegated to a back seat. In comparison to the major ecological and evolutionary questions, it may seem trivial. Yet the whole process of host-plant selection and host-plant specificity amongst insects depends on behavior, and selection for behavioral differences must be a prime factor in the evolution of host-plant specificity. In writing this book, we hope to draw attention to this central role of behavior and, hopefully, encourage a few students to attack some of the very difficult questions that remain unanswered.

Insect Chemical Ecology

Author: Bernard D. Roitberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412018718
Size: 34.90 MB
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Insect Chemical Ecology provides a comprehensive view of how natural selection acts upon interacting organisms and how particular physical and biological properties of chemical compounds act as constraints upon which natural selection may act. Individual chapters raise specific questions as to the nature of these interactions. The first part contains reviews on antagonistic and mutualistic chemical interactions, the `raw materials' of chemical evolution, the economics of offensive and defensive chemicals, and neurobiology. The second part discusses particular problems such as the evolution of resistance, insect pollination, learning, pheromones, sequestration of semiochemicals, the role of microorganisms, sex attractants, the evolution of host races and biotypes, and the role of semiochemicals and the evolution of sociality of insects. The last chapter discusses the role of chemical-based pest management programs in an ecological and evolutionary framework.

Variable Plants And Herbivores In Natural And Managed Systems

Author: Robert Denno
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323142877
Size: 54.85 MB
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Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems examines individual, population, species, and community responses of herbivores to plant variation, with emphasis on insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. It is divided into five parts encompassing 18 chapters that discuss variability as a mechanism of defense used by plants against their parasites and the effects of variability on herbivores at several different levels of complexity. After a brief discussion on plant-herbivore interactions, the first part of this book considers sources of within-plant variation and effects on the distribution and abundance of herbivores. Part II examines interplant variation, the co-evolutionary problems it poses for herbivores, and the ecological and evolutionary responses of these animals. It discusses the effects of host-plant variability on the fitness of sedentary herbivorous insects. Part III discusses the role of host variability in the evolution of feeding specialization, genetic differentiation, and race formation. The importance of host variation to the organization of herbivore communities and the manipulation of host-plant variability for the management of herbivore pest populations are presented in the remaining parts. This book will be helpful to agriculturists, silviculturists, biologists, and researchers who wish to expand their knowledge in dynamics of plant-herbivore relationships.

Plant Resistance To Herbivores And Pathogens

Author: Robert S. Fritz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226265537
Size: 68.95 MB
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Far from being passive elements in the landscape, plants have developed many sophisticated chemical and mechanical means of deterring organisms that seek to prey on them. This volume draws together research from ecology, evolution, agronomy, and plant pathology to produce an ecological genetics perspective on plant resistance in both natural and agricultural systems. By emphasizing the ecological and evolutionary basis of resistance, the book makes an important contribution to the study of how phytophages and plants coevolve. Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens not only reviews the literature pertaining to plant resistance from a number of traditionally separate fields but also examines significant questions that will drive future research. Among the topics explored are selection for resistance in plants and for virulence in phytophages; methods for studying natural variation in plant resistance; the factors that maintain intraspecific variation in resistance; and the ecological consequences of within-population genetic variation for herbivorous insects and fungal pathogens. "A comprehensive review of the theory and information on a large, rapidly growing, and important subject."—Douglas J. Futuyma, State University of New York, Stony Brook

Perspectives In Chemoreception And Behavior

Author: R.F. Chapman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146124644X
Size: 12.88 MB
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In the study of the physiological basis of animal behavior Vince Dethier has been a pioneer, a guiding star. Although his own work has centered on the blowfly and the caterpillar, his interests and influence have spread far beyond the insects. The breadth of this impact is indicated by the contributions from colleagues and former students in this volume. These papers were originally presented at a meeting to honor Vince's 70th birthday held at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in May 1985. It was attended by friends and col leagues of all ages from many parts of the world. However, the picture presented by these papers is not the whole story. What it does not show is the extent of Vince's interest and influence beyond the rigorous, though friendly, atmosphere of the research laboratory. His idyllic summers in Maine have produced studies on the natural history of feeding by insects culminating in The Tent Makers, with more to come. In these studies we see his real love and, dare we say, understanding of the insect. Vince Dethier is not concerned simply with reaching the established scientist. In To Know a Fly he reaches out to those just beginning, perhaps even to those who will never begin, and provides insight both to the experimentalist's approach and to the fun of research. His sense of fun and his elegant, fluent writing have given us, too, his tongue-in-cheek fictional writings for children of all ages.

Encyclopedia Of Insects

Author: Vincent H. Resh
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920900
Size: 78.93 MB
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Awarded Best Reference by the New York Public Library (2004), Outstanding Academic Title by CHOICE (2003), and AAP/PSP 2003 Best Single Volume Reference/Sciences by Association of American Publishers' Professional Scholarly Publishing Division, the first edition of Encyclopedia of Insects was acclaimed as the most comprehensive work devoted to insects. Covering all aspects of insect anatomy, physiology, evolution, behavior, reproduction, ecology, and disease, as well as issues of exploitation, conservation, and management, this book sets the standard in entomology. The second edition of this reference will continue the tradition by providing the most comprehensive, useful, and up-to-date resource for professionals. Expanded sections in forensic entomology, biotechnology and Drosphila, reflect the full update of over 300 topics. Articles contributed by over 260 high profile and internationally recognized entomologists provide definitive facts regarding all insects from ants, beetles, and butterflies to yellow jackets, zoraptera, and zygentoma. * 66% NEW and revised content by over 200 international experts * New chapters on Bedbugs, Ekbom Syndrome, Human History, Genomics, Vinegaroons * Expanded sections on insect-human interactions, genomics, biotechnology, and ecology * Each of the 273 articles updated to reflect the advances which have taken place in entomology research since the previous edition * Features 1,000 full-color photographs, figures and tables * A full glossary, 1,700 cross-references, 3,000 bibliographic entries, and online access save research time * Updated with online access