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High Resolution Xas Xes

Author: Jacinto Sa
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466592990
Size: 79.68 MB
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Photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy is an emerging approach to characterize the electronic structure of catalysts and enzymes, and it is either installed or planned for intense synchrotron beam lines and X-ray free electron lasers. This type of spectroscopy requires high-energy resolution spectroscopy not only for the incoming X-ray beam but also, in most applications, for the detection of the outgoing photons. Thus, the use of high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometers whose resolving power ΔE/E is typically about 10–4, is mandatory. High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts covers the latest developments in X-ray light sources, detectors, crystal spectrometers, and photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy techniques. It also addresses photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy applications for the study of catalytic systems, highlighting hard X-ray measurements primarily due to probe high penetration, enabling in situ studies. This first-of-its-kind book: Discusses high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in terms of time-resolved and surface enhancement Supplies an understanding of catalytic reactivity essential for capitalizing on core level X-ray spectroscopy at fourth-generation light sources (XFELs) Describes all spectrometers developed to perform core level X-ray spectroscopy, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each Details methods to elucidate aspects of catalysts under working conditions, such as active sites and molecule adsorption Introduces theoretical calculations of spectra and explores biological as well as heterogeneous catalysts Complete with guidelines and warnings for the use of this type of spectroscopy, High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of this exciting field.

X Ray Absorption And X Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Author: Jeroen A. van Bokhoven
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118844262
Size: 79.72 MB
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During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-Ray Absorption and X-ray Emission Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications: Combines the theory, instrumentation and applications of x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies which offer unique diagnostics to study almost any object in the Universe. Is the go-to reference book in the subject for all researchers across multi-disciplines since intense beams from modern sources have revolutionized x-ray science in recent years Is relevant to students, postdocurates and researchers working on x-rays and related synchrotron sources and applications in materials, physics, medicine, environment/geology, and biomedical materials

Xafs Techniques For Catalysts Nanomaterials And Surfaces

Author: Yasuhiro Iwasawa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438662
Size: 21.82 MB
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This book is a comprehensive, theoretical, practical, and thorough guide to XAFS spectroscopy. The book addresses XAFS fundamentals such as experiments, theory and data analysis, advanced XAFS methods such as operando XAFS, time-resolved XAFS, spatially resolved XAFS, total-reflection XAFS, high energy resolution XAFS, and practical applications to a variety of catalysts, nanomaterials and surfaces. This book is accessible to a broad audience in academia and industry, and will be a useful guide for researchers entering the subject and graduate students in a wide variety of disciplines.

X Ray Free Electron Laser

Author: Kiyoshi Ueda
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038428795
Size: 32.87 MB
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "X-Ray Free-Electron Laser" that was published in Applied Sciences

Advanced Textile Testing Techniques

Author: Sheraz Ahmad
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351651684
Size: 70.50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Textile testing is an important field of textile sciences involving experimental evaluation of conventional as well as technical textile products. This book aims to provide technical details, required protocols and procedures for conducting any specific evaluation test along with key parameters. The book covers the topics in two main sections, first one for the conventional textile testing techniques starting from fiber to final product while the second one focusses on testing of technical textiles. Written with a reader friendly approach, it will cater to graduate students in textile engineering as well as industry personnel, focusing on following key points: Addresses all techniques for testing both conventional and technical textiles. Describes testing techniques compliance with the latest requirements of the updated EN ISO and AATCC standards. Provides detailed description on the testing of technical textiles and their products. Discusses the operations conditions, like atmospheric conditions, and human error with cause and effect diagrams. Covers both destructive and non-destructive testing.

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials

Author: Guido Busca
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 044459521X
Size: 40.78 MB
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Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for catalysts), mixed and complex oxides and salts, halides, sulfides, carbides, and unsupported and supported metals are all considered. The book encompasses applications in industrial chemistry, refinery, petrochemistry, biomass conversion, energy production, and environmental protection technologies. Provides a systematic and clear approach of the synthesis, solid state chemistry and surface chemistry of all solid state catalysts Covers widely used instrumental techniques for catalyst characterization, such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and more Includes characterization methods and lists all catalytic behavior of the solid state catalysts Discusses new developments in nanocatalysts and their advantages over conventional catalysts

Fundamental Concepts In Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: Jens K. N?rskov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111889202X
Size: 43.41 MB
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This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts. Features include: First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysis Basis for understanding and designing experiments in the field Allows reader to understand catalyst design principles Introduction to important elements of energy transformation technology Test driven at Stanford University over several semesters

M Ssbauer Spectroscopy And Transition Metal Chemistry

Author: Philipp Gütlich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540884286
Size: 13.42 MB
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concentrates on teaching techniques using as much theory as needed. application of the techniques to many problems of materials characterization. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a profound analytical method which has nevertheless continued to develop. The authors now present a state-of-the art book which consists of two parts. The first part details the fundamentals of Mössbauer spectroscopy and is based on a book published in 1978 in the Springer series 'Inorganic Chemistry Concepts' by P. Gütlich, R. Link and A.X. Trautwein. The second part covers useful practical aspects of measurements, and the application of the techniques to many problems of materials characterization. The update includes the use of synchroton radiation and many instructive and illustrative examples in fields such as solid state chemistry, biology and physics, materials and the geosciences, as well as industrial applications. Special chapters on magnetic relaxation phenomena (S. Morup) and computation of hyperfine interaction parameters (F. Neese) are also included. The book concentrates on teaching the technique using theory as much as needed and as little as possible. The reader will learn the fundamentals of the technique and how to apply it to many problems of materials characterization. Transition metal chemistry, studied on the basis of the most widely used Mössbauer isotopes, will be in the foreground.

Core Level Spectroscopy Of Solids

Author: Frank de Groot
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420008425
Size: 29.40 MB
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Core level spectroscopy has become a powerful tool in the study of electronic states in solids. From fundamental aspects to the most recent developments, Core Level Spectroscopy of Solids presents the theoretical calculations, experimental data, and underlying physics of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES). Starting with the basic aspects of core level spectroscopy, the book explains the many-body effects in XPS and XAS as well as several theories. After forming this foundation, the authors explore more advanced features of XPS, XAS, XMCD, and RXES. Topics discussed include hard XPS, resonant photoemission, spin polarization, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). The authors also use the charge transfer multiplet theory to interpret core level spectroscopy for transition metal and rare earth metal systems. Pioneers in the theoretical and experimental developments of this field, Frank de Groot and Akio Kotani provide an invaluable treatise on the numerous aspects of core level spectroscopy that involve solids.