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Historical Variability Of Rainfall In The African East Sahel Of Sudan

Author: John F. Hermance
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319005758
Size: 44.21 MB
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The northward migration of the African monsoon rains in summer, associated with the seasonal march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across the plains south of the Sahara, is the most critical asset for the livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local economies of the Sahel. It is essential that climate science (and its publicly available database) play a key role in characterizing the variabilities of these rainfall patterns in space and time if sustainable life styles are to accommodate the expanding populations of the region. This study turns to the East Sahel of Sudan by analyzing over 100 years of historical rainfall data from three of the few long term standard WMO rain gauge stations in substantially different rainfall settings. From north to south, transecting the Sahel, the stations with their annual rainfall are Khartoum (130 mm); Kassala (280 mm); and Gedaref (600 mm). The conclusions challenge a popular notion that changing climate, drought and desertification in the East Sahel may have already accelerated the deterioration of its water resources. However, any evidence of a persistent and coherent regional trend of diminishing rainfall is obscure. Quite the contrary, the evidence demonstrates that the fluctuations of climate and weather patterns over the ensuing decades of the past century - at all temporal scales from days to years to decades - profoundly overwhelm any suggestion of a large-scale, coherent decrease (or increase) in rainfall. The implication is that, it is not long term change, but the highly localized interseasonal, interannual and multiannual variability of rainfall that poses the greatest and most immediate societal threat from naturally-induced causes; a process constantly destabilizing an agrarian economy struggling to survive in a climate that irregularly vacillates between years of drought and years of flooding. While this report may have some interest for climate scientists, it is primarily directed to a general readership (including students in public policy and anthropology) concerned with the availability of water in the Sahel, particularly the long term sustainability of local small-scale farms and transhumant pastoralism.

Pastoralism And Development In Africa

Author: Andy Catley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415540712
Size: 26.31 MB
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Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. And once again the news has been bad: drought, famine, conflict, hunger, suffering and death. The finger of blame has been pointed in numerous directions: to the changing climate, to environmental degradation, to overpopulation, to geopolitics and conflict, to aid agency failures, and more. But it is not all disaster and catastrophe. Many successful development efforts at 'the margins' often remain hidden, informal, sometimes illegal; and rarely in line with standard development prescriptions. If we shift our gaze from the capital cities to the regional centres and their hinterlands, then a very different perspective emerges. These are the places where pastoralists live. They have for centuries struggled with drought, conflict and famine. They are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative peoples. Yet they have been ignored and marginalised by the states that control their territory and the development agencies who are supposed to help them. This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound difficulties of creating secure livelihoods in the Greater Horn of Africa, there is much to be learned from development successes, large and small. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars with an interest in development studies and human geography, with a particular emphasis on Africa. It will also appeal to development policy-makers and practitioners.

Use Of The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Ndvi To Assess Land Degradation At Multiple Scales

Author: Genesis T. Yengoh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319241125
Size: 28.45 MB
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This report examines the scientific basis for the use of remotely sensed data, particularly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), primarily for the assessment of land degradation at different scales and for a range of applications, including resilience of agro-ecosystems. Evidence is drawn from a wide range of investigations, primarily from the scientific peer-reviewed literature but also non-journal sources. The literature review has been corroborated by interviews with leading specialists in the field. The report reviews the use of NDVI for a range of themes related to land degradation, including land cover change, drought monitoring and early warning systems, desertification processes, greening trends, soil erosion and salinization, vegetation burning and recovery after fire, biodiversity loss, and soil carbon. This SpringerBrief also discusses the limits of the use of NDVI for land degradation assessment and potential for future directions of use. A substantial body of peer-reviewed research lends unequivocal support for the use of coarse-resolution time series of NDVI data for studying vegetation dynamics at global, continental and sub-continental levels. There is compelling evidence that these data are highly correlated with biophysically meaningful vegetation characteristics such as photosynthetic capacity and primary production that are closely related to land degradation and to agroecosystem resilience.

Metals In Past Societies

Author: Shadreck Chirikure
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331911641X
Size: 78.44 MB
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This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.

Water And Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Iván Francisco García-Tejero
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400720916
Size: 20.70 MB
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Irrigated agriculture, a vital component of general agriculture, supplies fruits, vegetables, and cereals consumed by humans and grains fed to animals. Consequently, agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices in many parts of the world are biologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Water management should balance the need for agricultural water and the need for a sustainable environment. Water-use efficiency is the prime challenge in worldwide farming practices where problems of water shortages are widespread. Currently, agriculture is undergoing significant changes in innovative irrigation, fertilizer technology, and agronomic expertise. These elements constitute a vital platform for sustainable agricultural success and for preventing environmental damage. This review presents several processes linked to environmental irrigation, balancing environmental protection with improved agricultural production.

Urban Vulnerability And Climate Change In Africa

Author: Stephan Pauleit
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319039822
Size: 25.44 MB
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Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; and strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation.

Pediatric Orthopedics

Author: Amr Abdelgawad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461471265
Size: 25.39 MB
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​Topics in pediatric orthopedics routinely surface in general pediatrics and primary care, whether on board exams or in clinical practice. From birth injuries to musculoskeletal infections, there are many conditions and presenting complaints that must be addressed by the primary care physician or pediatrician. This concise and targeted handbook contains just the need to know conditions, injuries, and diseases necessary for residents and even seasoned clinicians to brush up on pediatric orthopedic topics with ease. Information is contained within themed chapters (like neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal infections) and also by anatomical region (hip, knee foot, spine, etc.). This book gives readers the basic knowledge to be able to identify common orthopedic conditions, indications to either treat these conditions or refer patient to an orthopedist, and covers the entire required curriculum needed to answer musculoskeletal questions on the pediatrics board exam.

Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

Author: Muhammad Munir
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642314511
Size: 59.42 MB
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Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. The authors are experts in the field and provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review covering all aspects of the disease. The book is divided into seven chapters highlighting genome organization, virus replication and the determinants of virulence, pathophysiology and clinical disease, immunology and immunopathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic assays and vaccines, and the challenges concerning global eradication. It is an invaluable reference work, presenting the latest information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, veterinarians, and scientists working in PPR research.

Aeolian Geomorphology

Author: Livingstone
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781118945667
Size: 66.30 MB
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A revised introduction to aeolian geomorphology written by noted experts in the field The new, revised and updated edition of Aeolian Geomorphology offers a concise and highly accessible introduction to the subject. The text covers the topics of deserts and coastlines, as well as periglacial and planetary landforms. The authors review the range of aeolian characteristics that include soil erosion and its consequences, continental scale dust storms, sand dunes and loess. Aeolian Geomorphology explores the importance of aeolian processes in the past, and the application of knowledge about aeolian geomorphology in environmental management. The new edition includes contributions from eighteen experts from four continents. All the chapters demonstrate huge advances in observation, measurement and mathematical modelling. For example, the chapter on sand seas shows the impact of greatly enhanced and accessible remote sensing and the chapter on active dunes clearly demonstrates the impact of improvements in field techniques. Other examples reveal the power of greatly improved laboratory techniques. This important text: Offers a comprehensive review of aeolian geomorphology Contains contributions from an international panel of eighteen experts in the field Includes the results of the most recent research on the topic Filled with illustrative examples that demonstrate the advances in laboratory approaches Written for students and professionals in the field, Aeolian Geomorphology provides a comprehensive introduction to the topic in twelve new chapters with contributions from noted experts in the field.

Mediterranean Mobilities

Author: Maria Paradiso
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319896326
Size: 45.77 MB
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This book critically assesses mobilities across the Mediterranean Basin and explores the implications of changing European relationships in the light of observations of the intersectional formation and evolution of identities, behavior and ideas. Further, it discusses the timely topic of a new diversity of migration and mobility practices (personal and virtual mobilities in terms of gender, motivations, emotional geographies, impacts, and circulation) from conceptual and empirical perspectives, providing new insights for scholars and policy makers in the context of urgently needed national and European policies. Mediterranean Mobilities is based on fieldwork in European and non-European countries and on mutual learning and transfer of knowledge among scholars from nine universities in Morocco, Algeria, Israel, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain, as well as stakeholders in Europe and North Africa. The results stem from the FP7 Marie Curie IRSES project MEDCHANGe coordinated by the book editor. The project comprises fieldwork conducted by distinguished scholars in Europe, Morocco, Algeria and Israel, generating original data and findings on fast changing realities. This book appeals to researchers but also serves as a basic or complementary text in advanced undergraduate, graduate or master’s courses on mobilities/migration, regionalization, cooperation, international relations and Mediterranean studies as part of teaching programs in geography, sociology, international political sciences, as well as programs focusing on regional studies (e.g., European integration). It is also of interest to the professional and institutional community in the wide area of Mediterranean politics, economy and society as well as a general readership.