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Hiv Interventions

Author: Marsha Rosengarten
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295990325
Size: 67.37 MB
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Winner of the Sociology of Health and Illness Book Prize HIV has changed in the presence of recent biomedical technologies. In particular, the development of anti-retroviral therapies (ARVs) for the treatment of HIV was a significant landmark in the history of the disease. Treatment with ARV drug regimens, which began in 1996, has enabled many thousands to live with the human immunodeficiency virus without progressing to AIDS. Yet ARVs have also been fraught with problems of regimen compliance, viral resistance, and iatrogenic disease. Besides intensifying the technological and ethical complexities of medicine, the drugs have also affected conceptions of risk and risk practices, in turn presenting new challenges for prevention. In order to devise safer, more effective forms of treatment, prevention, and possibly cure, Marsha Rosengarten asserts, it is essential to understand the relationship between HIV, medical technologies, and ideas about the body. HIV is an entity that constitutes and is constituted by complex material and informational environments. Recognition of this two-way traffic between the medical science of HIV and the expression of HIV in individuals and societies provides a novel basis for devising new or supplementary modes of thinking about and intervening in the epidemic. Through such diverse materials as drug advertisements, pill formulations, scientific articles, clinical trials, diagnostic test results, and viral imaging as well as interviews with those living and working with HIV, Rosengarten provides numerous demonstrations of how the entities comprising the HIV epidemic - bodies, viral resistance, diagnostic results, safe sex - are forged through dynamic relations. These various phenomena challenge existing prevention models and raise social and ethical concerns about the impact of additional technologies such as HIV pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis and the promise of vaccines and microbicides. HIV Interventions is relevant to those engaged in questions of the social and ethical dimensions of biomedicine, biotechnology, and genomics. Further, the specific focus of the project offers HIV practitioners - in the sciences and social sciences, in clinical research, clinical practice, social research, policy development and prevention education - new perspectives and analytic tools for intercepting a virus that continues to endure and, most critically, to change in the course of doing so.

Cross Cultural Perspectives On Couples With Mixed Hiv Status Beyond Positive Negative

Author: Asha Persson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319427253
Size: 73.26 MB
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This edited volume presents a detailed portrait of couples living with mixed HIV status, where one partner is HIV-positive and the other negative. Readers will come to understand the various and complex ways in which these mixed-status, or serodiscordant couples build a life together within the shadow of HIV-related stigma. Spanning the globe, coverage explores serodiscordance as a negotiated practice and process, inseparable from the social context in which it is situated. The book shows how couples draw on diverse and sometimes contradictory cultural discourses of medicine, romance, and “normality” to make sense of and manage their mixed HIV status and any perceived risks, not uncommonly in ways that depart from prevailing HIV prevention messages. Throughout, compelling personal stories accompany the empirical research, sharing the firsthand experiences of men and women in serodiscordant relationships. Bringing together research from diverse disciplines and geographical regions, this book contributes important insights for future HIV health promotion as well as offers new knowledge to scholarship on the cultural intersections of illness and intimacy. It will appeal to a broad audience working across the fields of HIV, health, gender, sexuality, development, and human rights.

Darwin S Pharmacy

Author: Richard M. Doyle
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295803002
Size: 14.18 MB
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Are humans unwitting partners in evolution with psychedelic plants? Darwin�s Pharmacy shows they are by weaving the evolutionary theory of sexual selection and the study of rhetoric together with the science and literature of psychedelic drugs. Long suppressed as components of the human tool kit, psychedelic plants can be usefully modeled as �eloquence adjuncts� that intensify a crucial component of sexual selection in humans: discourse. Psychedelic plants seduce us to interact with them, building an ongoing interdependence: rhetoric as evolutionary mechanism. In doing so, they engage our awareness of the noosphere, or thinking stratum of the earth. The realization that the human organism is part of an interconnected ecosystem is an apprehension of immanence that could ultimately benefit the planet and its inhabitants. To explore the rhetoric of the psychedelic experience and its significance to evolution, Doyle takes his readers on an epic journey through the writings of William Burroughs and Kary Mullis, the work of ethnobotanists and anthropologists, and anonymous trip reports. The results offer surprising insights into evolutionary theory, the war on drugs, the internet, and the nature of human consciousness itself. Watch the book trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xof-t2cAob4

Bioart And The Vitality Of Media

Author: Robert E. Mitchell
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295998776
Size: 63.84 MB
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Bioart -- art that uses either living materials (such as bacteria or transgenic organisms) or more traditional materials to comment on, or even transform, biotechnological practice -- now receives enormous media attention. Yet despite this attention, bioart is frequently misunderstood. Bioart and the Vitality of Media is the first comprehensive theoretical account of the art form, situating it in the contexts of art history, laboratory practice, and media theory. Mitchell begins by sketching a brief history of bioart in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, describing the artistic, scientific, and social preconditions that made it conceptually and technologically possible. He illustrates how bioartists employ technologies and practices from the medical and life sciences in an effort to transform relationships among science, medicine, corporate interests, and the public. By illustrating the ways in which bioart links a biological understanding of media -- that is, �media� understood as the elements of an environment that facilitate the growth and development of living entities -- with communicational media, Bioart and the Vitality of Media demonstrates how art and biotechnology together change our conceptions and practices of mediation. Reading bioart through a range of resources, from Immanuel Kant�s discussion of disgust to Gilles Deleuze�s theory of affect to Gilbert Simondon�s concept of �individuation,� provides readers with a new theoretical approach for understanding bioart and its relationships to both new media and scientific institutions.

Affect And Artificial Intelligence

Author: Elizabeth A. Wilson
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 9780295800004
Size: 62.65 MB
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In 1950, Alan Turing, the British mathematician, cryptographer, and computer pioneer, looked to the future: now that the conceptual and technical parameters for electronic brains had been established, what kind of intelligence could be built? Should machine intelligence mimic the abstract thinking of a chess player or should it be more like the developing mind of a child? Should an intelligent agent only think, or should it also learn, feel, and grow? Affect and Artificial Intelligence is the first in-depth analysis of affect and intersubjectivity in the computational sciences. Elizabeth Wilson makes use of archival and unpublished material from the early years of AI (1945�70) until the present to show that early researchers were more engaged with questions of emotion than many commentators have assumed. She documents how affectivity was managed in the canonical works of Walter Pitts in the 1940s and Turing in the 1950s, in projects from the 1960s that injected artificial agents into psychotherapeutic encounters, in chess-playing machines from the 1940s to the present, and in the Kismet (sociable robotics) project at MIT in the 1990s.

Hiv Prevention

Author: Kenneth H. Mayer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080921297
Size: 16.32 MB
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HIV/AIDS continues to be the pandemic of our times and there has not been a comprehensive medically based AIDS prevention book published in the last 5 years. It is estimated that 36 to 45 million people including 2-3 million children already are infected worldwide and an additional 4-7 million more are infected each year. There are about 6,000 new infections daily and about 12 million AIDS orphans. People receiving AIDS treatments feel well and have no detectable viral load, but still can infect others. And even when a vaccine is found, it will take many years before it can be administered across the developing world. * Discusses all aspects of AIDS prevention, from epidemiology, molecular immunology and virology to the principles of broad-based public health prevention interventions. * Special focus on the array of interventions that have been proven effective through rigorous study * Identifies new trends in HIV/AID epidemiology and their impact on creating and implementing prevention interventions * Incorporates virology, biology, infectious diseases, vaccinology, microbicides and research methodologies into AIDS prevention

Impure Science

Author: Steven Epstein
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520214455
Size: 73.30 MB
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Epstein shows the extent to which AIDS research has been a social and political phenomenon and how the AIDS movement has transformed biomedical research practices through its capacity to garner credibility by novel strategies.

Inclusion The Politics Of Difference In Medical Research Chicago Studies In Practices Of Meaning Large Print 16pt

Author: Steven Epstein
Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
ISBN: 1459606027
Size: 79.89 MB
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With Inclusion, Steven Epstein argues that strategies to achieve diversity in medical research mask deeper problems, ones that might require a different approach and different solutions. Formal concern with this issue, Epstein shows, is a fairly recent phenomenon. Until the mid-1980s, scientists often studied groups of white, middle-aged men - and assumed that conclusions drawn from studying them would apply to the rest of the population. But struggles involving advocacy groups, experts, and Congress led to reforms that forced researchers to diversify the population from which they drew for clinical research. While the prominence of these inclusive practices has offered hope to traditionally underserved groups, Epstein argues that it has drawn attention away from the tremendous inequalities in health that are rooted not in biology but in society. This edition is in two volumes. The second volume ISBN is 9781458732194.

Tissue Economies

Author: Catherine Waldby
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822337706
Size: 72.55 MB
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DIVA cultural studies account of how the "bio-value" of blood, stem cells, organs, and cell lines moves back and forth between 'gift' and 'commodity'./div

Tactical Biopolitics

Author: Beatriz Da Costa
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262514915
Size: 18.88 MB
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Scientists, scholars, and artists consider the political significance of recent advances in the biological sciences.