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Homology Genes And Evolutionary Innovation

Author: Günter P. Wagner
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400851467
Size: 13.30 MB
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Homology—a similar trait shared by different species and derived from common ancestry, such as a seal's fin and a bird’s wing—is one of the most fundamental yet challenging concepts in evolutionary biology. This groundbreaking book provides the first mechanistically based theory of what homology is and how it arises in evolution. Günter Wagner, one of the preeminent researchers in the field, argues that homology, or character identity, can be explained through the historical continuity of character identity networks—that is, the gene regulatory networks that enable differential gene expression. He shows how character identity is independent of the form and function of the character itself because the same network can activate different effector genes and thus control the development of different shapes, sizes, and qualities of the character. Demonstrating how this theoretical model can provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origin of novel characters, Wagner applies it to the origin and evolution of specific systems, such as cell types; skin, hair, and feathers; limbs and digits; and flowers. The first major synthesis of homology to be published in decades, Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation reveals how a mechanistically based theory can serve as a unifying concept for any branch of science concerned with the structure and development of organisms, and how it can help explain major transitions in evolution and broad patterns of biological diversity.

Homology Genes And Evolutionary Innovation

Author: Günter P. Wagner
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780691180670
Size: 24.60 MB
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Homology--a similar trait shared by different species and derived from common ancestry, such as a seal's fin and a bird's wing--is one of the most fundamental yet challenging concepts in evolutionary biology. This groundbreaking book provides the first mechanistically based theory of what homology is and how it arises in evolution. G�nter Wagner, one of the preeminent researchers in the field, argues that homology, or character identity, can be explained through the historical continuity of character identity networks--that is, the gene regulatory networks that enable differential gene expression. He shows how character identity is independent of the form and function of the character itself because the same network can activate different effector genes and thus control the development of different shapes, sizes, and qualities of the character. Demonstrating how this theoretical model can provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origin of novel characters, Wagner applies it to the origin and evolution of specific systems, such as cell types; skin, hair, and feathers; limbs and digits; and flowers. The first major synthesis of homology to be published in decades, Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation reveals how a mechanistically based theory can serve as a unifying concept for any branch of science concerned with the structure and development of organisms, and how it can help explain major transitions in evolution and broad patterns of biological diversity.

Homology Genes And Evolutionary Innovation

Author: Günter P. Wagner
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780691156460
Size: 67.95 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 1880
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Homology--a similar trait shared by different species and derived from common ancestry, such as a seal's fin and a bird's wing--is one of the most fundamental yet challenging concepts in evolutionary biology. This groundbreaking book provides the first mechanistically based theory of what homology is and how it arises in evolution. Günter Wagner, one of the preeminent researchers in the field, argues that homology, or character identity, can be explained through the historical continuity of character identity networks--that is, the gene regulatory networks that enable differential gene expression. He shows how character identity is independent of the form and function of the character itself because the same network can activate different effector genes and thus control the development of different shapes, sizes, and qualities of the character. Demonstrating how this theoretical model can provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origin of novel characters, Wagner applies it to the origin and evolution of specific systems, such as cell types; skin, hair, and feathers; limbs and digits; and flowers. The first major synthesis of homology to be published in decades, Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation reveals how a mechanistically based theory can serve as a unifying concept for any branch of science concerned with the structure and development of organisms, and how it can help explain major transitions in evolution and broad patterns of biological diversity.

The Origins Of Evolutionary Innovations

Author: Andreas Wagner
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191621285
Size: 42.83 MB
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The history of life is a nearly four billion year old story of transformative change. This change ranges from dramatic macroscopic innovations such as the evolution of wings or eyes, to a myriad of molecular changes that form the basis of macroscopic innovations. We are familiar with many examples of innovations (qualitatively new phenotypes that provide a critical benefit) but have no systematic understanding of the principles that allow organisms to innovate. This book proposes several such principles as the basis of a theory of innovation, integrating recent knowledge about complex molecular phenotypes with more traditional Darwinian thinking. Central to the book are genotype networks: vast sets of connected genotypes that exist in metabolism and regulatory circuitry, as well as in protein and RNA molecules. The theory can successfully unify innovations that occur at different levels of organization. It captures known features of biological innovation, including the fact that many innovations occur multiple times independently, and that they combine existing parts of a system to new purposes. It also argues that environmental change is important to create biological systems that are both complex and robust, and shows how such robustness can facilitate innovation. Beyond that, the theory can reconcile neutralism and selectionism, as well as explain the role of phenotypic plasticity, gene duplication, recombination, and cryptic variation in innovation. Finally, its principles can be applied to technological innovation, and thus open to human engineering endeavours the powerful principles that have allowed life's spectacular success.

Genomic Control Process

Author: Isabelle Peter
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124047467
Size: 51.77 MB
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Genomic Control Process explores the biological phenomena around genomic regulatory systems that control and shape animal development processes, and which determine the nature of evolutionary processes that affect body plan. Unifying and simplifying the descriptions of development and evolution by focusing on the causality in these processes, it provides a comprehensive method of considering genomic control across diverse biological processes. This book is essential for graduate researchers in genomics, systems biology and molecular biology seeking to understand deep biological processes which regulate the structure of animals during development. Covers a vast area of current biological research to produce a genome oriented regulatory bioscience of animal life Places gene regulation, embryonic and postembryonic development, and evolution of the body plan in a unified conceptual framework Provides the conceptual keys to interpret a broad developmental and evolutionary landscape with precise experimental illustrations drawn from contemporary literature Includes a range of material, from developmental phenomenology to quantitative and logic models, from phylogenetics to the molecular biology of gene regulation, from animal models of all kinds to evidence of every relevant type Demonstrates the causal power of system-level understanding of genomic control process Conceptually organizes a constellation of complex and diverse biological phenomena Investigates fundamental developmental control system logic in diverse circumstances and expresses these in conceptual models Explores mechanistic evolutionary processes, illuminating the evolutionary consequences of developmental control systems as they are encoded in the genome

The Origin Of Higher Taxa

Author: T. S. Kemp
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022633600X
Size: 31.23 MB
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In the grand sweep of evolution, the origin of radically new kinds of organisms in the fossil record is the result of a relatively simple process: natural selection marching through the ages. Or is it? Does Darwinian evolution acting over a sufficiently long period of time really offer a complete explanation, or are unusual genetic events and particular environmental and ecological circumstances also involved? With The Origin of Higher Taxa, Tom Kemp sifts through the layers of paleobiological, genetic, and ecological evidence on a quest to answer this essential, game-changing question of biology. Looking beyond the microevolutionary force of Darwinian natural selection, Kemp enters the realm of macroevolution, or evolution above the species level. From the origin of mammals to the radiation of flowering plants, these large-scale patterns—such as the rise of novel organismal design, adaptive radiations, and lineage extinctions—encompass the most significant trends and transformations in evolution. As macroevolution cannot be studied by direct observation and experiment, scientists have to rely on the outcome of evolution as evidence for the processes at work, in the form of patterns of species appearances and extinctions in a spotty fossil record, and through the nature of species extant today. Marshalling a wealth of new fossil and molecular evidence and increasingly sophisticated techniques for their study, Kemp here offers a timely and original reinterpretation of how higher taxa such as arthropods, mollusks, mammals, birds, and whales evolved—a bold new take on the history of life.

The Design Of Innovation

Author: David E. Goldberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475736436
Size: 76.40 MB
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7 69 6 A DESIGN APPROACH TO PROBLEM DIFFICULTY 71 1 Design and Problem Difficulty 71 2 Three Misconceptions 72 3 Hard Problems Exist 76 4 The 3-Way Decomposition and Its Core 77 The Core of Intra-BB Difficulty: Deception 5 77 6 The Core of Inter-BB Difficulty: Scaling 83 7 The Core of Extra-BB Difficulty: Noise 88 Crosstalk: All Roads Lead to the Core 8 89 9 From Multimodality to Hierarchy 93 10 Summary 100 7 ENSURING BUILDING BLOCK SUPPLY 101 1 Past Work 101 2 Facetwise Supply Model I: One BB 102 Facetwise Supply Model II: Partition Success 103 3 4 Population Size for BB Supply 104 Summary 5 106 8 ENSURING BUILDING BLOCK GROWTH 109 1 The Schema Theorem: BB Growth Bound 109 2 Schema Growth Somewhat More Generally 111 3 Designing for BB Market Share Growth 112 4 Selection Press ure for Early Success 114 5 Designing for Late in the Day 116 The Schema Theorem Works 6 118 A Demonstration of Selection Stall 7 119 Summary 122 8 9 MAKING TIME FOR BUILDING BLOCKS 125 1 Analysis of Selection Alone: Takeover Time 126 2 Drift: When Selection Chooses for No Reason 129 3 Convergence Times with Multiple BBs 132 4 A Time-Scales Derivation of Critical Locus 142 5 A Little Model of Noise-Induced Run Elongation 143 6 From Alleles to Building Blocks 147 7 Summary 148 10 DECIDING WELL 151 1 Why is Decision Making a Problem? 151

Evolution Since Coding

Author: Zachary F. Burton
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128130342
Size: 59.24 MB
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Evolution since Coding: Cradles, Halos, Barrels, and Wings describes genesis of metabolism, transcription, translation, cell structure, eukaryotic complexity, LUCA (the last universal common (cellular) ancestor), the great divergence of archaea and bacteria, LECA (the last eukaryotic common ancestor), extinction, and cancer in very simple ways. The work (almost) "synthesizes life from scratch" (since coding) and describes the tools for readers to check the author’s work. As a result, readers understand living systems and their evolution in a conceptual way and are empowered to utilize powerful but accessible tools in computer-based biology. The work serves as foundational reading for a variety of researchers, academics, and students in life sciences, for example in evolution/evolutionary biology, biochemistry, genetics/molecular genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, and microbiology, as well as disciplines beyond biological science. Its approachable style makes the book accessible for introductory students and educated laypersons. Evolution since Coding is suitable to supplement college courses that mix computers, evolution, and biology from freshman to senior level. Provides a simple, hands-on, conceptual route to understanding ancient evolution and the diversification of life on earth Offers a conceptual understanding of biology, evolution, protein structure, RNA synthesis systems, protein synthesis systems, signaling systems, genesis of the three domains, and cell structures Approaches ancient evolution via code-breaking protein and RNA sequences and motifs

Developmental Plasticity And Evolution

Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195122350
Size: 31.60 MB
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West-Eberhard is widely recognized as one of the most incisive thinkers in evolutionary biology. This book assesses all the evidence for our current understanding of the role of changes in body plan and development for the process of speciation. The process of evolution is systematically reassessed to integrate the insights coming from developmental genetics. Every serious student of evolution, and a substantial share of developmental biologists and geneticists, will need to take note of this contribution. The timing is clearly ripe for the synthesis that this work will help bring about.