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Hopewell Ceremonial Landscapes Of Ohio

Author: Mark Lynott
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1782977546
Size: 67.99 MB
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Nearly 2000 years ago, people living in the river valleys of southern Ohio built earthen monuments on a scale that is unmatched in the archaeological record for small-scale societies. The period from c. 200 BC to c. AD 500 (Early to Middle Woodland) witnessed the construction of mounds, earthen walls, ditches, borrow pits and other earthen and stone features covering dozen of hectares at many sites and hundreds of hectares at some. The development of the vast Hopewell Culture geometric earthwork complexes such as those at Mound City, Chilicothe; Hopewell; and the Newark earthworks was accompanied by the establishment of wide-ranging cultural contacts reflected in the movement of exotic and strikingly beautiful artefacts such as elaborate tobacco pipes, obsidian and chert arrowheads, copper axes and regalia, animal figurines and delicately carved sheets of mica. These phenomena, coupled with complex burial rituals, indicate the emergence of a political economy based on a powerful ideology of individual power and prestige, and the creation of a vast cultural landscape within which the monument complexes were central to a ritual cycle encompassing a substantial geographical area. The labour needed to build these vast cultural landscapes exceeds population estimates for the region, and suggests that people from near (and possibly far) travelled to the Scioto and other river valleys to help with construction of these monumental earthen complexes. Here, Mark Lynott draws on more than a decade of research and extensive new datasets to re-examine the spectacular and massive scale Ohio Hopewell landscapes and to explore the society that created them.

Indian Mounds Of The Middle Ohio Valley

Author: Susan L. Woodward
Publisher: McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company
ISBN:
Size: 71.82 MB
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Mounds and earthworks are the most conspicuous elements of prehistoric American Indian culture to be found on the landscape of eastern North America. Some of the largest, most elaborate, and best known of these structures were built by the Woodland and Late Prehistoric Indians of the middle Ohio Valley. This second edition of the popular Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley identifies, describes, and provides access information for more than 70 mound and earthwork sites that are open to visitation by the public or that can be seen from public space. In addition, this book provides an overview of the culture of the mound building Indians and the fate of their mounds during the Historic period, and identifies numerous sources of additional information about the subject.

Hopewell Settlement Patterns Subsistence And Symbolic Landscapes

Author: A. Martin Byers
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780813045597
Size: 45.79 MB
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This collection of essays addresses important questions, like these and others, by examining the cultural and social nature of the well-known Ohio Hopewell monumental earthworks. Scholars discuss the purpose, meaning, and role of earthworks and other artifacts, theorizing on how they may have reflected political, social, and practical ecological organization.

The Ohio Hopewell Episode

Author: A. Martin Byers
Publisher: The University of Akron Press
ISBN: 9781931968003
Size: 24.92 MB
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There is a general consensus among the North American archaeologists specializing in the Middle Woodland period (ca 100B.C. to ca A.D. 400) that the Ohio Hopewell was a rather straight forward complex of small-scaled peer polity communities based on simple gardening and extensive foraging practices and occupying dispersed habitation locales loosely clustered around major earthworks. This book challenges this general consensus by presenting a radically alternative view. It argues that the Ohio Hopewell episode can be better and more coherently characterized by treating it as a complex social system based on dual and mutually autonomous social networks of clan alliances and world renewal cults, and that this dual clan-cult social system was, in fact, the culmination of such social systems that were widely dispersed across the Eastern Woodlands. The cults were devoted to treating their deceased members and/or dependants as sacrificial offerings to enhance the sacred powers of nature and the clans were devoted to transforming their deceased into ancestors and the stresses these opposing mortuary practices generated underwrote the dynamics of the Ohio Hopewell and brought about the monumental earthworks as sacred locales of world renewal cults.

Mysteries Of The Hopewell

Author: William F. Romain
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 58.33 MB
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Buried beneath today's Midwestern towns, under several layers of earth and the accumulated debris of two thousand years, are the clues to an ancient mystery. A Native American people, now known as the Hopewell, lived and worked these lands, building earthworks which in some instances dwarf the ruins at Stonehenge. More significantly, these mammoth earthworks were built in different geometric shapes, using a standard unit of measure and aligned to the cycles of the sun and the moon. Using the foundation of existing scholarship, Mysteries of the Hopewell presents new discoveries showing the accomplishments of the Mound Builders in astronomy, geometry, measurement, and counting. William Romain then goes one step further to theorize why generations of people toiled to move millions of tons of earth to form these precise structures, joining the ranks of the Egyptians, Mayans, Greeks, Chinese, and other advanced ancient cultures. William Romain's Mysteries of the Hopewell will appeal to many readers, including anthropologists, mathematicians, and historians, but perhaps especially to readers curious about ancient cultures and seeking explanations for these magnificent earthen structures.

Sunwatch

Author: Robert A. Cook
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 081731590X
Size: 14.66 MB
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Through a comprehensive study of SunWatch, one of the few thoroughly excavated Fort Ancient settlements, the author focuses on the development of village social structure within a broad geographic and temporal framework, recognizing border areas as particularly dynamic contexts of social change.

Ceramic Petrography And Hopewell Interaction

Author: James B. Stoltman
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817318593
Size: 34.96 MB
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Ceramic Petrography and Hopewell Interaction is a highly innovative study in which James B. Stoltman uses petrography to reveal previously undetectable evidence of cultural interaction among Hopewell societies of the Ohio Valley region and the contemporary peoples of the Southeast.

Beliefs And Rituals In Archaic Eastern North America

Author: Cheryl Claassen
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817318542
Size: 44.71 MB
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A comprehensive and essential field reference, Beliefs and Rituals in Archaic Eastern North America reveals the spiritual landscape in the American Archaic period. Beliefs and Rituals in Archaic Eastern North America describes, illustrates, and offers nondogmatic interpretations of rituals and beliefs in Archaic America. In compiling a wealth of detailed entries, author Cheryl Claassen has created both an exhaustive reference as well as an opening into new archaeological taxonomies, connections, and understandings of Native American culture. The material is presented in an introductory essay about Archaic rituals followed by two sections of entries that incorporate reports and articles discussing archaeological sites; studies of relevant practices of ritual and belief; data related to geologic features, artifact attributes, and burial settings; ethnographies; and pilgrimages to specific sites. Claassen’s work focuses on the American Archaic period (marked by the end of the Ice Age approximately 11,000 years ago) and a geographic area bounded by the edge of the Great Plains, Newfoundland, and southern Florida. This period and region share specific beliefs and practices such as human sacrifice, dirt mound burial, and oyster shell middens. This interpretive guide serves as a platform for new interpretations and theories on this period. For example, Claassen connects rituals to topographic features and posits the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as a major stimulus to Archaic beliefs. She also expands the interpretation of existing data previously understood in economic or environmental terms to include how this same data may also reveal spiritual and symbolic practices. Similarly, Claassen interprets Archaic culture in terms of human agency and social constraint, bringing ritual acts into focus as drivers of social transformation and ethnogenesis. Richly annotated and cross-referenced for ease of use, Beliefs and Rituals in Archaic Eastern North America will benefit scholars and students of archaeology and Native American culture. Claassen’s overview of the archaeological record should encourage the development of original archaeological and historical connections and patterns. Such an approach, Claassen suggests, may reveal patterns of influence extending from early eastern Americans to the Aztec and Maya.

Ancient Mounds In Ohio

Author: Dale Lute
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781482354713
Size: 21.92 MB
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When you think of Native American mounds in Ohio, the one that most people are familiar with is the Serpent Mound located in Adams County. While this is a remarkable landmark dating back to approximately three thousand years ago and is visible from space, what is little known is the other thirty five hundred documented sites. Keep in mind here the word “documented”, when in reality there is believed to be as many as thirteen thousand potential archaeological sites attributed the Native American tribes of Ohio. In this first volume, it is my intentions to bring some of the misplaced information on these forgotten sites to the attention of the public or at least to those with an interest in preserving this knowledge.