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Human Factors In Simple And Complex Systems Second Edition

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420063608
Size: 77.20 MB
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In terms of simple and complex systems, it is a whole new world out there. At the initial publication of this book, fourteen years ago, the web was in its infancy, DVDs did not exist, cell phones were few and far between, and the information superhighway was just a blip upon the horizon. If you used the terms "social engineering," you were most likely a political scientist, and if you were "phishing" you might be listening to a rock band. The second edition of a bestseller, Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems provides the necessary understanding of the breadth and depth of human factors issues that influence the design, implementation, and evaluation of products and systems. Emphasizing the close relationship between basic theory and application, the authors delineate a framework for the research process, present an integrated view of the current state of knowledge, and examine how these factors can be applied to system design. The new edition addresses such concepts as situation awareness and highlights topics of interest, with a special focus on computer applications and human-computer interaction. See what’s new in the Second Edition New topics, such as situational awareness, that capture the tremendous changes in human factors and ergonomics Tightly integrates basic research and application, strengthening the link between knowledge and practice Each chapter includes a separate box that discusses a topic of current interest related to human interaction with computers and recent technology Demonstrating a general approach to solving a broad range of system problems, the book provides coverage of the theoretical foundation on which the discipline of human factors is built. Structured around human information processing, it covers the full range of contemporary human factors and ergonomics, then shows you how to apply them.

Human Factors In Simple And Complex Systems

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482229595
Size: 75.22 MB
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Recently, there have been a number of advances in technology, including in mobile devices, globalization of companies, display technologies and healthcare, all of which require significant input and evaluation from human factors specialists. Accordingly, this textbook has been completely updated, with some chapters folded into other chapters and new chapters added where needed. The text continues to fill the need for a textbook that bridges the gap between the conceptual and empirical foundations of the field.

Das Lean Six Sigma Toolbook

Author: Michael L. George
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648539
Size: 45.73 MB
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Die Referenz zum Verständnis der Konzepte und Werkzeuge von Lean Six Sigma: Six Sigma ist ein statistisches Qualitätsziel und zugleich ein Instrument des Qualitätsmanagements. Ausgangspunkt dieser auf Effizienz und Qualität ausgerichteten Methode ist die Zieldefinition. Danach wird die Fehlerabweichung von diesem Idealziel ermittelt. Ihr Kernelement ist also die Beschreibung, Messung, Analyse, Verbesserung und Überwachung von Geschäftsprozessen unter anderem mit statistischen Mitteln. Dabei orientieren sich die Ziele an Prozesskennzahlen eines Unternehmens und an den Kundenbedürfnissen. In diesem Buch werden alle wichtigen Werkzeuge zur Anwendung von Lean Six Sigma vorgestellt und systematisch auf ihre Einsatzgebiete hin eingeordnet. Detaillierte Erläuterungen helfen zu verstehen, welches Werkzeug wann, wie und warum einzusetzen ist. Aus dem Inhalt: - Voice of the Customer - Wertstromanalyse und Prozessflussdiagramme - Datenerhebung und Abweichungsanalysen - Fehlerursachen identifizieren und verifizieren - Minderung der Durchlaufzeiten und der nicht-wertschöpfenden Kosten - Komplexität und Komplexitätsanalyse - Auswahl und Pilotierung von Lösungen Michael L. George ist Chairman der George Group, der weltweit führenden Six-Sigma-Beratung. David Rowlands ist Vice President für Six Sigma bei der North American Solution Group, einer Division von Xerox. Marc Pice und John Maxey sind Mitarbeiter der George Group. Die Übersetzung dieses Buchs wurde vom Six-Sigma-Experten Dirk Dose, Partner bei der PPI AG (www.sixsigma.de), und seinem Team vorgenommen. Er verfügt über umfangreiche Beratungspraxis mit Prozessoptimierungsprojekten, bei denen Six Sigma zur Verbesserung von Geschäftsprozessen eingesetzt wurde. Lean Six Sigma ist eine der führenden Techniken zur Maximierung der Prozesseffizienz und zur Steuerung jedes Schritts eines Geschäftsprozesses. Mit dem Lean Six Sigma Toolbook werden Sie entdecken, wie Sie Ihr Unternehmen auf ein neues Niveau der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit heben können.

Human Factors Engineering And Ergonomics

Author: Stephen J. Guastello
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146656010X
Size: 74.41 MB
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Although still true to its original focus on the person–machine interface, the field of human factors psychology (ergonomics) has expanded to include stress research, accident analysis and prevention, and nonlinear dynamical systems theory (how systems change over time), human group dynamics, and environmental psychology. Reflecting new developments in the field, Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics: A Systems Approach, Second Edition addresses a wide range of human factors and ergonomics principles found in conventional and twenty-first century technologies and environments. Based on the author’s thirty years of experience, the text emphasizes fundamental concepts, systems thinking, the changing nature of the person-machine interface, and the dynamics of systems as they change over time. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Developments in working memory, degrees of freedom in cognitive processes, subjective workload, decision-making, and situation awareness Updated information on cognitive workload and fatigue Additional principles for HFE, networks, multiple person-machine systems, and human-robot swarms Accident analysis and prevention includes resilience, new developments in safety climate, and an update to the inventory of accident prevention techniques and their relative effectiveness Problems in "big data" mining Psychomotor control and its relevance to human-robot systems Navigation in real-world environment Trust in automation and augmented cognition Computer technology permeates every aspect of the human–machine system, and has only become more ubiquitous since the previous edition. The systems are becoming more complex, so it should stand to reason that theories need to evolve to cope with the new sources of complexity. While many books cover traditional topics and theory, they to not focus on the practical problems students will face in the future. With broad coverage that ranges from physical ergonomics to cognitive aspects of human-machine interaction and includes dynamic approaches to system failure, this book increases the number of methods and analytical tools that are available for the human factors researcher.

The Design Of Everyday Things

Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Size: 33.23 MB
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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

International Encyclopedia Of Ergonomics And Human Factors Second Edition 3 Volume Set

Author: Waldemar Karwowski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780415304306
Size: 40.88 MB
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The previous edition of the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors made history as the first unified source of reliable information drawn from many realms of science and technology and created specifically with ergonomics professionals in mind. It was also a winner of the Best Reference Award 2002 from the Engineering Libraries Division, American Society of Engineering Education, USA, and the Outstanding Academic Title 2002 from Choice Magazine. Not content to rest on his laurels, human factors and ergonomics expert Professor Waldemar Karwowski has overhauled his standard-setting resource, incorporating coverage of tried and true methods, fundamental principles, and major paradigm shifts in philosophy, thought, and design. Demonstrating the truly interdisciplinary nature of this field, these changes make the second edition even more comprehensive, more informative, more, in a word, encyclopedic. Keeping the format popularized by the first edition, the new edition has been completely revised and updated. Divided into 13 sections and organized alphabetically within each section, the entries provide a clear and simple outline of the topics as well as precise and practical information. The book reviews applications, tools, and innovative concepts related to ergonomic research. Technical terms are defined (where possible) within entries as well as in a glossary. Students and professionals will find this format invaluable, whether they have ergonomics, engineering, computing, or psychology backgrounds. Experts and researchers will also find it an excellent source of information on areas beyond the range of their direct interests.

Investigating Human Error

Author: Barry Strauch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131711311X
Size: 12.50 MB
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In this book the author applies contemporary error theory to the needs of investigators and of anyone attempting to understand why someone made a critical error, how that error led to an incident or accident, and how to prevent such errors in the future. Students and investigators of human error will gain an appreciation of the literature on error, with numerous references to both scientific research and investigative reports in a wide variety of applications, from airplane accidents, to bus accidents, to bonfire disasters. Based on the author's extensive experience as an accident investigator and instructor of both aircraft accident investigation techniques and human factors psychology, it reviews recent human factors literature, summarizes major transportation accidents, and shows how to investigate the types of errors that typically occur in high risk industries. It presents a model of human error causation influenced largely by James Reason and Neville Moray, and relates it to error investigations with step-by-step guidelines for data collection and analysis that investigators can readily apply as needed. This second edition of Investigating Human Error has been brought up to date throughout, with pertinent recent accidents and safety literature integrated. It features new material on fatigue, distraction (eg mobile phone and texting) and medication use. It also now explores the topics of corporate culture, safety culture and safety management systems. Additionally the second edition considers the effects of the reduction in the number of major accidents on investigation quality, the consequences of social changes on transportation safety (such as drinking and driving, cell phone use, etc), the contemporary role of accident investigation, and the effects of the prosecution of those involved in accidents.

Verification And Validation Of Complex Systems Human Factors Issues

Author: John A. Wise
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662029332
Size: 44.71 MB
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Despite its increasing importance, the verification and validation of the human-machine interface is perhaps the most overlooked aspect of system development. Although much has been written about the design and developmentprocess, very little organized information is available on how to verifyand validate highly complex and highly coupled dynamic systems. Inability toevaluate such systems adequately may become the limiting factor in our ability to employ systems that our technology and knowledge allow us to design. This volume, based on a NATO Advanced Science Institute held in 1992, is designed to provide guidance for the verification and validation of all highly complex and coupled systems. Air traffic control isused an an example to ensure that the theory is described in terms that will allow its implementation, but the results can be applied to all complex and coupled systems. The volume presents the knowledge and theory ina format that will allow readers from a wide variety of backgrounds to apply it to the systems for which they are responsible. The emphasis is on domains where significant advances have been made in the methods of identifying potential problems and in new testing methods and tools. Also emphasized are techniques to identify the assumptions on which a system is built and to spot their weaknesses.

Skill Acquisition And Training

Author: Addie Johnson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315531631
Size: 20.32 MB
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Skill Acquisition and Training describes the building blocks of cognitive, motor, and teamwork skills, and the factors to take into account in training them. The basic processes of perception, cognition and action that provide the foundation for understanding skilled performance are discussed in the context of complex task requirements, individual differences, and extreme environmental demands. The role of attention in perceiving, selecting, and becoming aware of information, in learning new information, and in performance is described in the context of specific skills. A theme throughout this book is that much learning is implicit; the types of knowledge and relations that can profitably be learned implicitly and the conditions under which this learning benefits performance are discussed. The question of whether skill acquisition in cognitive domains shares underlying mechanisms with the acquisition of perceptual and motor skills is also addressed with a view to identifying commonalities that allow for widely applicable, general theories of skill acquisition. Because the complexity of real-world environments puts demands on the individual to adapt to new circumstances, the question of how skills research can be applied to organizational training contexts is an important one. To address this, this book dedicates much content to practical applications, covering such issues as how training needs can be captured with task and job analyses and how to maximize training transfer by taking trainee self-efficacy and goal orientation into account. This comprehensive yet readable textbook is optimized for students of cognitive psychology looking to understand the intricacies of skill acquisition.

Cultural Factors In Systems Design

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439846472
Size: 71.67 MB
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Cultural factors, in both the narrow sense of different national, racial, and ethnic groups, and in the broader sense of different groups of any type, play major roles in individual and group decisions. Written by an international, interdisciplinary group of experts, Cultural Factors in Systems Design: Decision Making and Action explores innovations in the understanding of how cultural differences influence decision making and action. Reflecting the diverse interests and viewpoints that characterize the current state of decision making and cultural research, the chapter authors represent a variety of disciplines and specialize in areas ranging from basic decision processes of individuals, to decisions made in teams and large organizations, to cultural influences on behavior. Balancing theoretical and practical perspectives, the book explores why the best laid plans go awry, examining conditions that can yield unanticipated behaviors from complex, adaptive sociotechnical systems. It highlights the different ways in which East Asians and Westerners make decisions and explores how to model and investigate cultural influences in interpersonal interactions, social judgment, and decision making. The book also reviews decision field theory and examines its implications for cross cultural decision making. With increasing globalization of organizations and interactions among people from various cultures, a better understanding of how cultural factors influence decision making and action is a necessity. Much is known about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes, however this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research areas. Presenting a range of current research and new ideas, this volume brings together previously scattered research and explores how to apply it when designing systems that will be used by individuals of varied backgrounds.