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Human Intelligence And Medical Illness

Author: R. Grant Steen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441900920
Size: 42.76 MB
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As critics will note, psychometric tests are deeply flawed. Person-to-person differences in performance on a psychometric test are not informative about many things of great interest. An intelligence quotient (IQ) cannot characterize creativity or w- dom or artistic ability or other forms of specialized knowledge. An IQ test is simply an effort to assess an aptitude for success in the modern world, and individual scores do a mediocre job of predicting individual successes. In the early days of psychology, tests of intelligence were cobbled together with little thought as to validity; instead, the socially powerful sought to validate their power and the prominent to rationalize their success. In recent years, we have ob- ated many of the objections to IQ that were so forcefully noted by Stephen Jay Gould in The Mismeasure of Man. Nevertheless, IQ tests are still flawed and those flaws are hereby acknowledged in principle. Yet, in the analysis that follows, individual IQ test scores are not used; rather, average IQ scores are employed. In many cases – though not all – an average IQ is calculated from a truly enormous sample of people. The most common circ- stance for such large-scale IQ testing is an effort to systematically sample all men of a certain age, to assess their suitability for service in the military. Yet, it is useful and prudent to retain some degree of skepticism about the ability of IQ tests to measure individual aptitudes.

Handbook Of Nonverbal Assessment

Author: R. Steve McCallum
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319506048
Size: 12.95 MB
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The second edition of this comprehensive volume presents methods for nonverbal assessment of diverse individuals, such as persons with speech or hearing deficits, limited English skills, or emotional problems. Chapters provide a contemporary context for nonverbal evaluations, accompanied by descriptions of best practices in detecting bias in cognitive tests, multicultural assessment, cross-battery assessment of nonverbal cognitive ability, and psychological and physiological influences on assessment. The book discusses nonverbal assessment of cognition and intelligence as well as related domains, such as academic skills, neurocognitive functioning, personality, and behavior issues. Guidelines for using common nonverbal assessment tools and strategies feature the most up-to-date information on administration and scoring, psychometric properties, and strengths and limitations. Best practices for testing diverse children and adults and using reliable, valid, and fair assessment instruments are emphasized throughout the book. Featured instruments in the Handbook include: The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, Second Edition (UNIT2). The newest version of the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-3). The Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). The Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Second Edition (CTONI-2). The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. The General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA). The Second Edition of the Handbook of Nonverbal Assessment is a must-have resource for researchers and graduate students in school and clinical child psychology, speech and language pathology, educational technology, social work, and related disciplines as well as clinicians, professionals, and in-service educators of diverse students.

The Scientific Study Of General Intelligence

Author: Helmuth Nyborg
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080516660
Size: 57.63 MB
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This book celebrates two triumphs in modern psychology: the successful development and application of a solid measure of general intelligence; and the personal courage and skills of the man who made this possible - Arthur R. Jensen from Berkeley University. The volume traces the history of intelligence from the early 19th century approaches, to the most recent analyses of the hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities, and documents the transition from a hopelessly confused concept of intelligence to the development of an objective measure of psychometric g. The contributions illustrate the impressive power g has with respect to predicting educational achievement, getting an attractive job, or social stratification. The book is divided into six parts as follows: Part I presents the most recent higher-stream analysis of cognitive abilities, Part II deals with biological aspects of g, such as research on brain imaging, glucose uptake, working memory, reaction time, inspection time, and other biological correlates, and concludes with the latest findings in g-related molecular genetics. Part III addresses demographic aspects of g, such as geographic-, race-, and sex-differences, and introduces differential psychological aspects as well. Part IV concentrates on the g nexus, and relates such highly diverse topics as sociology, genius, retardation, training, education, jobs, and crime to g. Part V contains chapters critical of research on g and its genetic relationship, and also presents a rejoinder. Part VI looks at one of the greatest contemporary psychologists, Professor Emeritus Arthur R. Jensen as teacher and mentor.

Handbook Of Childhood Psychopathology And Developmental Disabilities Treatment

Author: Johnny L. Matson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319712101
Size: 56.74 MB
Format: PDF
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This handbook explores the rapid growth in childhood developmental disabilities (DD) treatments. It reviews current evidence-based treatments for common psychopathologies and developmental disorders and evaluates the strengths of the treatments based on empirical evidence. Spanning infancy through the transition to young adulthood, chapters provide definitions, etiologies, prevalence, typical presentation and variants, assessment and diagnostic information, and age considerations. Chapters also review established and emerging psychological approaches and pharmacotherapies for cognitive, behavioral, emotional, medical, academic, and developmental issues as diverse as mood disorders, the autism spectrum, memory problems, feeding disorders, Tourette syndrome, and migraines. The wide range of topics covered aids practitioners in working with the complexities of young clients’ cases while encouraging further advances in an increasingly relevant field. Topics featured in this handbook include: An introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis. Parent training interventions. Treatment strategies for depression in youth. Assessment and treatment of self-injurious behaviors in children with DD. Treatment approaches to aggression and tantrums in children with DD. Interventions for children with eating and feeding disorders. The Handbook of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Treatment is a must-have resource for researchers, graduate students, clinicians, and related therapists and professionals in clinical child and school psychology, pediatrics, social work, developmental psychology, behavioral therapy/rehabilitation, child and adolescent psychiatry, and special education.

Technology And The Treatment Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Author: Teresa A. Cardon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319208721
Size: 73.28 MB
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This volume analyzes recent technological breakthroughs in aiding children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Chapters offer practical guidance in such areas as assessment, treatment planning, and collaborative intervention. The book also presents findings on hardware and software innovations and emphasizes their effectiveness in clinical practices that are targeted to specific cognitive, social, academic and motor skill areas. In addition, it describes promising new deficit-reducing and skill-enhancing technologies on the horizon. Featured topics include: Developing and supporting the writing skills of individuals with ASD through assistive technologies. The ways in which visual organizers may support executive function, abstract language comprehension and social learning. Do-as-I’m-doing situations involving video modeling and autism. The use of technology to facilitate personal, social and vocational skills in youth with ASD. Evidence-based instruction for students with ASD. The use of mobile technology to support community engagement and independence. Technology and Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is an essential resource for clinicians and related professionals as well as researchers and graduate students across such disciplines as child and school psychology, rehabilitation medicine, educational technology, occupational therapy, speech pathology and social work.

Specific Learning Disabilities

Author: Yitzchak Frank
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199342032
Size: 33.24 MB
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This book is a concise but comprehensive review of Specific Learning Disabilities, with a special attention to the biology of these diverse conditions. The reader will get a review of most aspects of SLD, including the different clinical syndromes (mostly dyslexia and dyscalculia), the clinical manifestations and the therapeutic approaches. It is unique in the proportion of its content dedicated to the biological aspects of SLD. It attempts to assemble and present the biological knowledge which has been accumulated on these conditions. This knowledge includes the neurological anatomy of dyslexia and dyscalculia, demonstrated with the help of modern neuro-imaging studies, and the physiology and the genetics of these conditions, again demonstrated by recently available technologies. These new technologies produced major discoveries related to SLD including the importance of phonological processing in reading, the presence of "number center?in the brain, and the rain networks involved in reading. We recognize that many dyslexic subjects have a deficit in aspects of language processing, specifically phonological processing; that dyscalculia can be the result of a number of distinct cognitive impairments, and that the basic underlying deficit in many cases of SLD may be a genetic variation. The same new biological investigative techniques can, like never before, measure the outcome of therapeutic techniques and learning methods. Such measurements will, in the future, be the "gold standard?in assessing the efficacy of different methods of classroom teaching in regular and different learners. Last, unlike many other publications on SLD, this book discusses the relatively unrecognized emotional aspects of SLD, and the sometime devastating effects that these conditions have on the life of affected subjects and their families, in and out of the classroom.

Handbook Of Resilience In Children

Author: Sam Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461436613
Size: 49.43 MB
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Today’s children face a multitude of pressures, from the everyday challenges of life to the increasing threats of poverty, exploitation, and trauma. Central to growing up successfully is learning to deal with stress, endure hardships, and thrive despite adversity. Resilience – the ability to cope with and overcome life’s difficulties – is a quality that can potentially be nurtured in all young people. The second edition of the Handbook of Resilience in Children updates and expands on its original focus of resilience in children who overcome adversity to include its development in those not considered at risk, leading to better outcomes for all children across the lifespan. Expert contributors examine resilience in relation to environmental stressors, as a phenomenon in child and adolescent disorders, and as a means toward positive adaptation into adulthood. New and revised chapters explore strategies for developing resilience in the family, the therapist’s office, and the school as well as its nurturance in caregivers and teachers. Topics addressed include: Resilience in maltreated children and adults. Resilience and self-control impairment. Relational resilience in young and adolescent girls. Asset-building as an essential component of treatment. Assessment of social and emotional competencies related to resilience. Building resilience through school bullying prevention programs. Large-scale longitudinal studies on resilience. The second edition of the Handbook of Resilience in Children is a must-have reference for researchers, clinicians, allied practitioners and professionals, and graduate students in school and clinical psychology, education, pediatrics, psychiatry, social work, school counseling, and public health.

Rural Ethnic Minority Youth And Families In The United States

Author: Lisa J. Crockett
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319209760
Size: 56.91 MB
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This book explores the risk and protective factors of rural life and minority status for youth and their families. It provides innovative perspectives on well-documented developmental challenges (e.g., poverty and lack of resources) as well as insights into the benefits of familial and cultural strengths. Coverage includes recent theories in child development, empirical studies of rural minority populations, and leading-edge interventions for urgent issues. The volume presents a spectrum of opportunities for understanding and providing services for youth in the United States through the lens of a diverse collection of ethnic minority experiences in rural settings. Topics featured in this volume include: Theoretical models focused on the intersection of ethnicity and rural settings. Family processes, child care, and early schooling in rural minority families. Promising strategies for conducting research with rural minority families. Strengths-based educational interventions in rural settings. Promoting supportive contexts for minority youth in low-resource rural communities. Rural Ethnic Minority Youth and Families in the United States is a valuable resource for researchers and professors, clinicians and related professionals and graduate students across such disciplines as clinical child, school and developmental psychology, family studies, social work and public health.

Resilience Interventions For Youth In Diverse Populations

Author: Sandra Prince-Embury
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493905422
Size: 75.63 MB
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Our uncertain times are hard enough for adults to navigate. For all too many young people—even many who appear to possess good coping skills—the challenges may seem overwhelming. More and more, resilience stands as an integral component in prevention programs geared to children and adolescents, whether at risk or not. Resilience Interventions for Youth in Diverse Populations details successful programs used with children and teens in a wide range of circumstances and conditions, both clinical and non-clinical. New strength-based models clarify the core aspects of resilience and translate them into positive social, health, educational, and emotional outcomes. Program descriptions and case examples cover diverse groups from homeless preschoolers to transgender youth to children with autism spectrum disorders, while interventions are carried out in settings as varied as the classroom and the clinic, the parent group and the playground. This unique collection of studies moves the field toward more consistent and developmentally appropriate application of the science of resilience building. Among the empirically supported programs featured: Promoting resilience in the foster care system. Developing social competence through a resilience model. Building resilience in young children the Sesame Street way. School-based intervention for resilience in ADHD. Girls Leading Outward: promoting resilience in at-risk middle school girls. Resiliency in youth who have been exposed to violence. Resilience Interventions for Youth in Diverse Populations is an essential resource for researchers, professionals/practitioners, and graduate students in clinical child and school psychology, social work, educational psychology, child and adolescent psychiatry, developmental psychology, and pediatrics.