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Human Performance Modeling In Aviation

Author: David C. Foyle
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062984
Size: 41.27 MB
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Based on the six-year NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program Human Performance Modeling project, a collaboration of five teams from industry and academia, Human Performance Modeling in Aviation chronicles the results of modeling NASA-supplied data on two aviation flight deck problems: pilot surface operations taxi errors, and approach and landing with synthetic vision systems. The book provides a deep understanding of the aviation problems and “what-if” system redesigns of flight deck technologies and procedures. Five modeling teams describe how they applied their models to these two problems and discuss the results in terms of the specific problems addressed, the modeling challenges faced, and the modeling solutions developed to address complex, real-world situations. The book then compares the five modeling tools used, shedding light on the unique approach that each brings to bear on two qualitatively different problems. It includes a “virtual roundtable discussion” that poses questions to each of the five teams and offers take-home lessons and insights into the modeling process and its complexities. The modeling teams also explore the issue of model validation and the approach that they adopted. Concluding with a summary of how modeling fits into the system design and evaluation process, the text covers state-of-the-art advances in human performance modeling for complex systems. Critical for modeling aviation-domain tasks, these modeling capabilities can also be applied to other complex-system domains such as process control, medical applications, surface transportation, and military command and control, which share similar human-system interaction issues.

Handbook Of Digital Human Modeling

Author: Vincent G. Duffy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420063529
Size: 47.49 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The rapid introduction of sophisticated computers, services, telecommunications systems, and manufacturing systems has caused a major shift in the way people use and work with technology. It is not surprising that computer-aided modeling has emerged as a promising method for ensuring products meet the requirements of the consumer. The Handbook of Digital Human Modeling provides comprehensive coverage of the theory, tools, and methods to effectively achieve this objective. The 56 chapters in this book, written by 113 contributing authorities from Canada, China, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Taiwan, UK, and the US, provide a wealth of international knowledge and guidelines. They cover applications in advanced manufacturing, aerospace, automotive, data visualization and simulation, defense and military systems, design for impaired mobility, healthcare and medicine, information systems, and product design. The text elucidates tools to help evaluate product and work design while reducing the need for physical prototyping. Additional software and demonstration materials on the CRC Press web site include a never-before-released 220-page step-by-step UGS-Siemens JackTM help manual developed at Purdue University. The current gap between capability to correctly predict outcomes and set expectation for new and existing products and processes affects human-system performance, market acceptance, product safety, and satisfaction at work. The handbook provides the fundamental concepts and tools for digital human modeling and simulation with a focus on its foundations in human factors and ergonomics. The tools identified and made available in this handbook help reduce the need for physical prototyping. They enable engineers to quantify acceptability and risk in design in terms of the human factors and ergonomics.

Adaptive Perspectives On Human Technology Interaction

Author: Alex Kirlik
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195346770
Size: 44.92 MB
Format: PDF
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In everyday life, and particularly in the modern workplace, information technology and automation increasingly mediate, augment, and sometimes even interfere with how humans interact with their environment. How to understand and support cognition in human-technology interaction is both a practically and socially relevant problem. The chapters in this volume frame this problem in adaptive terms: How are behavior and cognition adapted, or perhaps ill-adapted, to the demands and opportunities of an environment where interaction is mediated by tools and technology? The authors draw heavily on the work of Egon Brunswik, a pioneer in ecological and cognitive psychology, as well as on modern refinements and extensions of Brunswikian ideas, including Hammond's Social Judgment Theory, Gigerenzer's Ecological Rationality and Anderson's Rational Analysis. Inspired by Brunswik's view of cognition as "coming to terms" with the "casual texture" of the external world, the chapters in this volume provide quantitative and computational models and measures for studying how people come to terms with an increasingly technological ecology, and provide insights for supporting cognition and performance through design, training, and other interventions. The methods, models, and measures presented in this book provide timely and important resources for addressing problems in the rapidly growing field of human-technology interaction. The book will be of interest to researchers, students, and practitioners in human factors, cognitive engineering, human-computer interaction, judgment and decision making, and cognitive science.

Integrated Models Of Cognitive Systems

Author: Wayne D. Gray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198040774
Size: 27.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The field of cognitive modeling has progressed beyond modeling cognition in the context of simple laboratory tasks and begun to attack the problem of modeling it in more complex, realistic environments, such as those studied by researchers in the field of human factors. The problems that the cognitive modeling community is tackling focus on modeling certain problems of communication and control that arise when integrating with the external environment factors such as implicit and explicit knowledge, emotion, cognition, and the cognitive system. These problems must be solved in order to produce integrated cognitive models of moderately complex tasks. Architectures of cognition in these tasks focus on the control of a central system, which includes control of the central processor itself, initiation of functional processes, such as visual search and memory retrieval, and harvesting the results of these functional processes. Because the control of the central system is conceptually different from the internal control required by individual functional processes, a complete architecture of cognition must incorporate two types of theories of control: Type 1 theories of the structure, functionality, and operation of the controller, and type 2 theories of the internal control of functional processes, including how and what they communicate to the controller. This book presents the current state of the art for both types of theories, as well as contrasts among current approaches to human-performance models. It will be an important resource for professional and student researchers in cognitive science, cognitive-engineering, and human-factors. Contributors: Kevin A. Gluck, Jerry T. Ball, Michael A. Krusmark, Richard W. Pew, Chris R. Sims, Vladislav D. Veksler, John R. Anderson, Ron Sun, Nicholas L. Cassimatis, Randy J. Brou, Andrew D. Egerton, Stephanie M. Doane, Christopher W. Myers, Hansjörg Neth, Jeremy M Wolfe, Marc Pomplun, Ronald A. Rensink, Hansjörg Neth, Chris R. Sims, Peter M. Todd, Lael J. Schooler, Wai-Tat Fu, Michael C. Mozer, Sachiko Kinoshita, Michael Shettel, Alex Kirlik, Vladislav D. Veksler, Michael J. Schoelles, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Eric Dimperio, Ryan K. Jessup, Jonathan Gratch, Stacy Marsella, Glenn Gunzelmann, Kevin A. Gluck, Scott Price, Hans P. A. Van Dongen, David F. Dinges, Frank E. Ritter, Andrew L. Reifers, Laura Cousino Klein, Michael J. Schoelles, Eva Hudlicka, Hansjörg Neth, Christopher W. Myers, Dana Ballard, Nathan Sprague, Laurence T. Maloney, Julia Trommershäuser, Michael S. Landy, A. Hornof, Michael J. Schoelles, David Kieras, Dario D. Salvucci, Niels Taatgen, Erik M. Altmann, Richard A. Carlson, Andrew Howes, Richard L. Lewis, Alonso Vera, Richard P. Cooper, and Michael D. Byrne

Human Modelling In Assisted Transportation

Author: Carlo Cacciabue
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9788847018211
Size: 74.49 MB
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The objective of this Workshop is to confront models, methods and tools developed within the projects with the ongoing research worldwide and to provide an environment for fruitful exchange of ideas. The main topics are: 1. Advanced human models in transportation. 2. Human Errors and Risk Assessment in design processes of assistance systems. 3. Methods and tools to prevent erroneous behaviour to mitigate its consequences. The Workshop will consist of 10 keynote lectures as well as approximately 28 peer reviewed papers.

Engineering Psychology And Human Performance

Author: Christopher D. Wickens
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317351312
Size: 58.40 MB
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Forming connections between human performance and design Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, 4e examines human-machine interaction. The book is organized directly from the psychological perspective of human information processing. The chapters generally correspond to the flow of information as it is processed by a human being--from the senses, through the brain, to action--rather than from the perspective of system components or engineering design concepts. This book is ideal for a psychology student, engineering student, or actual practitioner in engineering psychology, human performance, and human factors Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: * Identify how human ability contributes to the design of technology. * Understand the connections within human information processing and human performance. * Challenge the way they think about technology's influence on human performance. * show how theoretical advances have been, or might be, applied to improving human-machine interaction

Human Factors In Aviation

Author: Earl L. Wiener
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 0127500316
Size: 20.40 MB
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Human Factors in Aviation, written for the widespread aviation community--engineers, scientist, pilots, managers, government personnel, and others--is also be of interest to those in nonaviation fields. The authors/contributors were chosen not only as experts in their fields, but because they could write for a wider audience than they customarily address. The organization of the book takes the reader from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors in aircraft design, and vehicles and systems. The physiological and medical aspects are well documented also.