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Human Performance Modeling In Aviation

Author: David C. Foyle
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062984
Size: 73.68 MB
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Based on the six-year NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program Human Performance Modeling project, a collaboration of five teams from industry and academia, Human Performance Modeling in Aviation chronicles the results of modeling NASA-supplied data on two aviation flight deck problems: pilot surface operations taxi errors, and approach and landing with synthetic vision systems. The book provides a deep understanding of the aviation problems and “what-if” system redesigns of flight deck technologies and procedures. Five modeling teams describe how they applied their models to these two problems and discuss the results in terms of the specific problems addressed, the modeling challenges faced, and the modeling solutions developed to address complex, real-world situations. The book then compares the five modeling tools used, shedding light on the unique approach that each brings to bear on two qualitatively different problems. It includes a “virtual roundtable discussion” that poses questions to each of the five teams and offers take-home lessons and insights into the modeling process and its complexities. The modeling teams also explore the issue of model validation and the approach that they adopted. Concluding with a summary of how modeling fits into the system design and evaluation process, the text covers state-of-the-art advances in human performance modeling for complex systems. Critical for modeling aviation-domain tasks, these modeling capabilities can also be applied to other complex-system domains such as process control, medical applications, surface transportation, and military command and control, which share similar human-system interaction issues.

Human Factors Models For Aviation Accident Analysis And Prevention

Author: Thomas G.C. Griffin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317120108
Size: 56.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The investigation and modelling of aviation accident causation is dominated by linear models. Aviation is, however, a complex system and as such suffers from being artificially manipulated into non-complex models and methods. This book addresses this issue by developing a new approach to investigating aviation accident causation through information networks. These networks centralise communication and the flow of information as key indicators of a system’s health and risk. This holistic approach focuses on the system environment, the activity that takes place within it, the strategies used to conduct this activity, the way in which the constituent parts of the system (both human and non-human) interact and the behaviour required. Each stage of this book identifies and expands upon the potential of the information network approach, maintaining firm focus on the overall health of a system. The book’s new model offers many potential developments and some key areas are studied in this research. Through the centralisation of barriers and information nodes the method can be applied to almost any situation. The application of Bayesian mathematics to historical data populations provides scope for studying error migration and barrier manipulation. The book also provides application of these predictions to a flight simulator study for the purposes of validation. Beyond this it also discusses the applicability of the approach to industry. Through working with a legacy airline the methods discussed are used as the basis for a new and prospective safety management system.

Space Safety And Human Performance

Author: Barbara G. Kanki
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0081018703
Size: 72.19 MB
Format: PDF
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Space Safety and Human Performance provides a comprehensive reference for engineers and technical managers within aerospace and high technology companies, space agencies, operators, and consulting firms. The book draws upon the expertise of the world’s leading experts in the field and focuses primarily on humans in spaceflight, but also covers operators of control centers on the ground and behavior aspects of complex organizations, thus addressing the entire spectrum of space actors. During spaceflight, human performance can be deeply affected by physical, psychological and psychosocial stressors. Strict selection, intensive training and adequate operational rules are used to fight performance degradation and prepare individuals and teams to effectively manage systems failures and challenging emergencies. The book is endorsed by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS). Provides information on critical aspects of human performance in space missions Addresses the issue of human performance, from physical and psychosocial stressors that can degrade performance, to selection and training principles and techniques to enhance performance Brings together essential material on: cognition and human error; advanced analysis methods such as human reliability analysis; environmental challenges and human performance in space missions; critical human factors and man/machine interfaces in space systems design; crew selection and training; and organizational behavior and safety culture Includes an endorsement by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS)

Handbook Of Aviation Human Factors Second Edition

Author: John A. Wise
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420063578
Size: 72.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A complete examination of issues and concepts relating to human factors in simulation, this book covers theory and application in space, ships, submarines, naval aviation, and commercial aviation. The authors examine issues of simulation and their effect on the validity and functionality of simulators as a training device. The chapters contain in depth discussions of these particular characteristics and issues. They also incorporate theories pertaining to the motivational aspects of training, simulation of social events, and PC based simulation.

Handbook Of Digital Human Modeling

Author: Vincent G. Duffy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420063529
Size: 61.98 MB
Format: PDF
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The rapid introduction of sophisticated computers, services, telecommunications systems, and manufacturing systems has caused a major shift in the way people use and work with technology. It is not surprising that computer-aided modeling has emerged as a promising method for ensuring products meet the requirements of the consumer. The Handbook of Digital Human Modeling provides comprehensive coverage of the theory, tools, and methods to effectively achieve this objective. The 56 chapters in this book, written by 113 contributing authorities from Canada, China, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Taiwan, UK, and the US, provide a wealth of international knowledge and guidelines. They cover applications in advanced manufacturing, aerospace, automotive, data visualization and simulation, defense and military systems, design for impaired mobility, healthcare and medicine, information systems, and product design. The text elucidates tools to help evaluate product and work design while reducing the need for physical prototyping. Additional software and demonstration materials on the CRC Press web site include a never-before-released 220-page step-by-step UGS-Siemens JackTM help manual developed at Purdue University. The current gap between capability to correctly predict outcomes and set expectation for new and existing products and processes affects human-system performance, market acceptance, product safety, and satisfaction at work. The handbook provides the fundamental concepts and tools for digital human modeling and simulation with a focus on its foundations in human factors and ergonomics. The tools identified and made available in this handbook help reduce the need for physical prototyping. They enable engineers to quantify acceptability and risk in design in terms of the human factors and ergonomics.

Cognitive Engineering And Safety Organization In Air Traffic Management

Author: Tom Kontogiannis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351687085
Size: 49.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book covers the Air Traffic Management (ATM) environment and the controller-crew interactions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) regulations and organizational procedures are also presented in a succinct manner so that novel and experienced aviation practitioners appreciate how safety organization affects their cognitive performance. The book distills theoretical knowledge about human cognition and presents real examples and case studies to help readers understand how air traffic controllers make sense of difficult situations, make decisions under time pressure, detect and correct their errors, and adapt their performance to complex situations.

Human Performance On The Flight Deck

Author: Don Harris
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351929682
Size: 72.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Taking an integrated, systems approach to dealing exclusively with the human performance issues encountered on the flight deck of the modern airliner, this book describes the inter-relationships between the various application areas of human factors, recognising that the human contribution to the operation of an airliner does not fall into neat pigeonholes. The relationship between areas such as pilot selection, training, flight deck design and safety management is continually emphasised within the book. It also affirms the upside of human factors in aviation - the positive contribution that it can make to the industry - and avoids placing undue emphasis on when the human component fails. The book is divided into four main parts. Part one describes the underpinning science base, with chapters on human information processing, workload, situation awareness, decision making, error and individual differences. Part two of the book looks at the human in the system, containing chapters on pilot selection, simulation and training, stress, fatigue and alcohol, and environmental stressors. Part three takes a closer look at the machine (the aircraft), beginning with an examination of flight deck display design, followed by chapters on aircraft control, flight deck automation, and HCI on the flight deck. Part four completes the volume with a consideration of safety management issues, both on the flight deck and across the airline; the final chapter in this section looks at human factors for incident and accident investigation. The book is written for professionals within the aviation industry, both on the flight deck and elsewhere, for post-graduate students and for researchers working in the area.

Advances In Human Aspects Of Aviation

Author: Steven J. Landry
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439871167
Size: 78.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Since the very earliest years of aviation, it was clear that human factors were critical to the success and safety of the system. As aviation has matured, the system has become extremely complex. Bringing together the most recent human factors work in the aviation domain, Advances in Human Aspects of Aviation covers the design of aircrafts for the comfort and well being of the passenger. The book discusses strategies and guidelines for maximizing comfort, the design of aircrafts including cockpit design, and the training and work schedules for flight attendants and pilots. It is becoming increasingly important to view problems not as isolated issues that can be extracted from the system environment, but as embedded issues that can only be understood as a part of an overall system. In keeping with a system that is vast in its scope and reach, the chapters in this book cover a wide range of topics, including: Interface and operations issues from the perspectives of pilots and air traffic controllers, respectively. Specific human performance issues, studied from within the context of the air transportation system Issues related to automation and the delineation of function between automation and human within the current and future system The U.S. air traffic modernization effort, called NextGen Diverse modeling perspectives and methods Safety and ethics as driving factors for change Cognition and work overload Empirical research and evaluation of the air transportation domain As air traffic modernization efforts begin to vastly increase the capacity of the system, the issues facing engineers, scientists, and other practitioners of human factors are becoming more challenging and more critical. Reflecting road themes and trends in this field, the book documents the latest research in this area.