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Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied To Building Physics

Author: João M.P.Q. Delgado
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642350038
Size: 72.68 MB
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This book presents a critical review on the development and application of hygrothermal analysis methods to simulate the coupled transport processes of Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) transfer for one or multidimensional cases. During the past few decades there has been relevant development in this field of study and an increase in the professional use of tools that simulate some of the physical phenomena that are involved in Heat, Air and Moisture conditions in building components or elements. Although there is a significant amount of hygrothermal models referred in the literature, the vast majority of them are not easily available to the public outside the institutions where they were developed, which restricts the analysis of this book to only 14 hygrothermal modelling tools. The special features of this book are (a) a state-of-the-art of numerical simulation tools applied to building physics, (b) the boundary conditions importance, (c) the material properties, namely, experimental methods for the measurement of relevant transport properties, and (d) the numerical investigation and application The main benefit of the book is that it discusses all the topics related to numerical simulation tools in building components (including state-of-the-art and applications) and presents some of the most important theoretical and numerical developments in building physics, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, this book will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, etc... The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems Etics

Author: Eva Barreira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319203827
Size: 44.31 MB
Format: PDF
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This book analyzes the hygrothermal behaviour of external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS), components that increase the thermal efficiency of buildings. Treating a topic that has largely been neglected, it explores the main cause of biological growth within ETICS. The results of two experimental test series are presented: (i) a long-term assessment of four façades covered with ETICS and (ii) an evaluation of the factors affecting the façades’ hygrothermal behaviour. Furthermore, using a previously validated numerical model, it presents a sensitivity analysis of the hygrothermal behaviour of façades coated with ETICS. It also provides a methodology to assess the surface humidification of ETICS, which combines the effect of surface condensation, wind-driven rain and the drying process (three of the most prevalent parameters influencing the surface moisture content), which can then be used as a decision-support tool. ETICS are now frequently used in Europe to improve the thermal efficiency of buildings. Despite their advantages in terms of thermal efficiency, their low cost and their ease of application, these systems are adversely affected by microbiological growth, which causes defacement of cladding. Although the thermal and mechanical performance of the system is not impaired, biological defacement has an enormous aesthetic impact, affecting the inhabitants’ living experience and restricting the full implementation of this technology. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS): An Evaluation of Hygrothermal Behaviour provides a valuable resource to engineers and architects utilizing ETICS in their work, and for researchers and students interested in the hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS. It is also intended for those employed in industry and manufacturers of ETICS.

Nearly Zero Energy Buildings And Proliferation Of Microorganisms

Author: Elisa Di Giuseppe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331902356X
Size: 22.31 MB
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This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to counter the biological phenomenon are examined, and an outline is provided for future innovations in a field not yet widely investigated.

School Buildings Rehabilitation

Author: Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319153595
Size: 28.73 MB
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This book discusses the effect of different school building rehabilitation strategies on the classrooms’ indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and presents a multi-objective methodology for school building enclosure optimization combining artificial neural networks and lifecycle costs. The special features of this book are that it (a) presents the state-of-the-art in school building rehabilitation, (b) covers the IEQ assessment of several school buildings, including non-rehabilitated and rehabilitated according to different strategies; and (c) proposes a multi-objective optimization procedure. The rehabilitation of a school building should be regarded as a procedure combining a number of (sometimes conflicting) variables and objectives, including energy, IEQ and costs (initial, operational and maintenance), in the search for an “optimum solution.” The main benefit of the book is that it discusses the main topics related to school building rehabilitation, presents results of the IEQ assessment on 9 school buildings and launches a discussion on how the “in-use” performance of schools is key to understanding how designed performance is actually experienced. It maps the most commonly used multi-objective algorithms and artificial neural network architectures and proposes a methodology for combining these numerical tools with dynamic building simulations and lifecycle cost analysis to optimize school building enclosures. This methodology will be of value to scientists and engineers alike, while also addressing a variety of related disciplines, such as civil and mechanical engineering, architecture and mathematics.

Hygrothermal Risk On Building Heritage

Author: João M.P.Q. Delgado
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319191144
Size: 22.21 MB
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This book presents a critical review of a criterion of risk, created to assess the flood risk to heritage buildings, and evaluates this criterion by applying it to the sample Portuguese heritage buildings. In a first approach, the total number of potential parameters is effectively reduced and the selected criteria are divided into two different groups: the monument’s location in relation to a waterway, and the behaviour of its construction material in contact with water. Above all, the book discusses the importance of architectural heritage and argues for the need to safeguard it from extreme climatic phenomena such as floods. As such, the book vividly reminds the scientific community that the intensification of the global warming and climate change will worsen throughout the 21st century, and that it is therefore necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimize, mitigate and control these adverse effects if we hope to avoid catastrophic consequences. At the same time, the book takes into account a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as civil engineering and architecture, offering a synthesis of the current state of knowledge to benefit and guide experts and practitioners in related fields.

On The Power Of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642354882
Size: 59.97 MB
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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Active House Smart Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

Author: Lone Feifer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319908146
Size: 69.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The book provides an overview of the Active House (AH) vision, intended as a building design method “beyond” the passive approach for buildings of the future that will be more and more connected, smart and innovative. It offers a novel philosophical design approach in which buildings, new or renovated, are in balance with natural, renewable energies and become “concentrators-distributors” of energies instead of being consumers of resources. The book is composed of five chapters, providing information on fundamental aspects of innovations toward resource-efficient buildings, as well as case studies presenting the concept in practice. It demonstrates that a completely new design approach is possible, and that a turning point has been reached. Lastly, it shows how the AH Alliance, along with designers, institutions, industries and academies, is bringing a breath of fresh air to the world of construction.

From Smart City To Smart Region

Author: Corinna Morandi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319173383
Size: 30.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book offers a fascinating exploration of the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and spatial planning, expanding the concept of “urban smartness” from the usual scale of buildings or urban projects to the regional dimension. In particular, it presents the outcomes of research undertaken at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Telecom Italia, that had three principal goals: to investigate the use of ICTs for the representation, promotion, management, and dissemination of an integrated system of services; to explore the spatial impacts of digital services at different scales (regional, urban, local); and to understand how a system of mobile services can encourage new spatial uses and new collective behavior in the quest for better spatial quality of places. Useful critical analysis of international case studies is also included with the aim of verifying the opportunities afforded by new digital services not only to improve the urban efficiency but also to foster the evolution of urban communities through enhancement of the public realm. The book will be a source of valuable insights for both scholars and local administrators and operators involved in smart city projects.

Numerical Simulation For Next Generation Thermal Power Plants

Author: Falah Alobaid
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319762346
Size: 79.25 MB
Format: PDF
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The book provides highly specialized researchers and practitioners with a major contribution to mathematical models’ developments for energy systems. First, dynamic process simulation models based on mixture flow and two-fluid models are developed for combined-cycle power plants, pulverised coal-fired power plants, concentrated solar power plant and municipal waste incineration. Operation data, obtained from different power stations, are used to investigate the capability of dynamic models to predict the behaviour of real processes and to analyse the influence of modeling assumptions on simulation results. Then, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation programme, so-called DEMEST, is developed. Here, the fluid-solid, particle-particle and particle-wall interactions are modeled by tracking all individual particles. To this purpose, the deterministic Euler-Lagrange/Discrete Element Method (DEM) is applied and further improved. An emphasis is given to the determination of inter-phase values, such as volumetric void fraction, momentum and heat transfers, using a new procedure known as the offset-method and to the particle-grid method allowing the refinement of the grid resolution independently from particle size. Model validation is described in detail. Moreover, thermochemical reaction models for solid fuel combustion are developed based on quasi-single-phase, two-fluid and Euler-Lagrange/MP-PIC models. Measurements obtained from actual power plants are used for validation and comparison of the developed numerical models.

Hygrothermal Behavior Building Pathology And Durability

Author: Vasco Peixoto de Freitas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364231158X
Size: 54.38 MB
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The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.