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Ice Microdynamics

Author: Pao K. Wang
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080508443
Size: 48.14 MB
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Atmospheric ice particles play crucial roles in cloud and storm dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, climatological processes, and other atmospheric processes. Ice Microdynamics introduces the elementary physics and dynamics of atmospheric ice particles in clouds; subsequent sections explain their formation from water vapor, why ice crystal shape and concentration in cirrus clouds influence the heating of air, and describe how ice crystals cleanse the atmosphere by scavenging aerosol particles. Pao Wang's lucid writing style will appeal to atmospheric scientists, climatologists, and meteorologists with an interest in understanding the role of ice particles in the atmosphere of our planet.

Past Glacial Environments

Author: John Menzies
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0081005253
Size: 60.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Past Glacial Environments, Second Edition, presents a revised and updated version of the very successful first edition of Menzies’ book, covering a breadth of topics with a focus on the recognition and analysis of former glacial environments, including the pre-Quaternary glaciations. The book is made up of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world, with the editor’s expertise and experience bringing the chapters together. This new and updated volume includes at least 45% new material, along with five new chapters that include a section on techniques and methods. Additionally, this new edition is presented in full color and features a large collection of photographs, line diagrams, and tables with examples of glacial environments and landscapes that are drawn from a worldwide perspective. Informative knowledge boxes and case studies are included, helping users better understand critical issues and ideas. Provides the most complete reference concerning the study of glacial processes and their geological, sedimentological, and geomorphological products Comprised of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world Includes specific case studies to alert readers to important ideas and issues Uses text boxes throughout to explain key concepts from glacial literature Presents full color photographs, line diagrams, and tables throughout

Deformation Of Earth Materials

Author: Shun-ichiro Karato
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139469568
Size: 61.15 MB
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This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid Earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on relevant debates are also included to bring readers a full picture of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.

Cascades Of Violence

Author: John Braithwaite
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461903
Size: 67.89 MB
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As in the cascading of water, violence and nonviolence can cascade down from commanding heights of power (as in waterfalls), up from powerless peripheries, and can undulate to spread horizontally (flowing from one space to another). As with containing water, conflict cannot be contained without asking crucial questions about which variables might cause it to cascade from the top-down, bottom up and from the middle-out. The book shows how violence cascades from state to state. Empirical research has shown that nations with a neighbor at war are more likely to have a civil war themselves (Sambanis 2001). More importantly in the analysis of this book, war cascades from hot spot to hot spot within and between states (Autesserre 2010, 2014). The key to understanding cascades of hot spots is in the interaction between local and macro cleavages and alliances (Kalyvas 2006). The analysis exposes the folly of asking single-level policy questions like do the benefits and costs of a regime change in Iraq justify an invasion? We must also ask what other violence might cascade from an invasion of Iraq? The cascades concept is widespread in the physical and biological sciences with cascades in geology, particle physics and the globalization of contagion. The past two decades has seen prominent and powerful applications of the cascades idea to the social sciences (Sunstein 1997; Gladwell 2000; Sikkink 2011). In his discussion of ethnic violence, James Rosenau (1990) stressed that the image of turbulence developed by mathematicians and physicists could provide an important basis for understanding the idea of bifurcation and related ideas of complexity, chaos, and turbulence in complex systems. He classified the bifurcated systems in contemporary world politics as the multicentric system and the statecentric system. Each of these affects the others in multiple ways, at multiple levels, and in ways that make events enormously hard to predict (Rosenau 1990, 2006). He replaced the idea of events with cascades to describe the event structures that 'gather momentum, stall, reverse course, and resume anew as their repercussions spread among whole systems and subsystems' (1990: 299). Through a detailed analysis of case studies in South Asia, that built on John Braithwaite's twenty-five year project Peacebuilding Compared, and coding of conflicts in different parts of the globe, we expand Rosenau's concept of global turbulence and images of cascades. In the cascades of violence in South Asia, we demonstrate how micro-events such as localized riots, land-grabbing, pervasive militarization and attempts to assassinate political leaders are linked to large scale macro-events of global politics. We argue in order to prevent future conflicts there is a need to understand the relationships between history, structures and agency; interest, values and politics; global and local factors and alliances.

Evidence Based Climate Science

Author: Don Easterbrook
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128045892
Size: 52.71 MB
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Evidence-Based Climate Science: Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, includes updated data related to the causes of global climate change from experts in meteorology, geology, atmospheric physics, solar physics, geophysics, climatology, and computer modeling. This book objectively gathers and analyzes scientific data concerning patterns of past climate changes, influences of changes in ocean temperatures, the effect of solar variation on global climate, and the effect of CO2 on global climate. This analysis is then presented as counter-evidence to the theory that CO2 is the primary cause behind global warming. Increasingly, scientists are pointing to data which suggests that climate changes are a result of natural cycles, which have been occurring for thousands of years. Unfortunately, global warming has moved into the political realm without enough peer-reviewed research to fully validate and exclude other, more natural, causes of climate change. For example, there is an absence of any physical evidence that CO2 causes global warming, so the only argument for CO2 as the cause of warming rests entirely in computer modeling. Thus, the question becomes, how accurate are the computer models in predicting climate? What other variables could be missing from the models? In order to understand modern climate changes, we need to look at the past history of climate changes. Vast amounts of physical evidence of climate change over the past centuries and millennia have been gathered by scientists. Significant climate changes have clearly been going on for many thousands of years, long before the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 Evidence-Based Climate Science, Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, documents past climate changes and presents physical evidence for possible causes. Provides scientific evidence for issues related to global climate change that is not readily available elsewhere Offers detailed analysis of temperature measurements with the goal of helping readers to understand conflicting claims about global warming heard every day in the news media Presents real-time data on polar ice Presents the real-time effect of CO2 on global warming, rather than forecasts based on computer models

Mathematical Methods For Physicists

Author: Tai L. Chow
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139427968
Size: 43.22 MB
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This text is designed for an intermediate-level, two-semester undergraduate course in mathematical physics. It provides an accessible account of most of the current, important mathematical tools required in physics these days. It is assumed that the reader has an adequate preparation in general physics and calculus. The book bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and more advanced courses in classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, quantum mechanics, and thermal and statistical physics. The text contains a large number of worked examples to illustrate the mathematical techniques developed and to show their relevance to physics. The book is designed primarily for undergraduate physics majors, but could also be used by students in other subjects, such as engineering, astronomy and mathematics.

Secrets Of The Snow

Author: Edward R. LaChapelle
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295802464
Size: 21.39 MB
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The surface of fallen snow�its contours and texture�can tell the interested observer much about the forces that shaped it and about its stability and what it is likely to do. Will it be good for skiing or for packing as a snowball? Will it slide? Is it dangerous? Secrets of the Snow is an overview of the easily visible aspects of snow in the alpine mountain landscape, serving as a companion volume to the author�s Field Guide to Snow Crystals, which examines snow at the microscopic level. Describing visual snow features and textures arising from climate, wind-drift, layering, solar radiation, and melting, Secrets of the Snow explains how snow may be "read" for information on avalanche formation and suitability for winter sports. Closely linked photographs and text illustrate the shapes, forms, and textures found at the surface of winter snow covers; describe their origins in wind and weather conditions; and guide the reader in interpreting these features to predict snow behavior. Secrets of the Snow is essential for winter sports enthusiasts, mountaineers, and avalanche-safety specialists.

Searching For The Long Duration Gamma Ray Burst Progenitor

Author: Robert Allan Mesler III
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319066269
Size: 58.42 MB
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Nominated as an outstanding thesis by the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of New Mexico, this thesis seeks to identify the gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor. GRBs are extragalactic explosions that briefly outshine entire galaxies, but the mechanism that can release that much energy over a 100 second burst is still a mystery. The leading candidate for the GRB progenitor is currently a massive star which collapses to form a black hole–accretion disk system that powers the GRB. GRB afterglows, however, do not always show the expected behavior of a relativistic blast wave interacting with the stellar wind that such a progenitor should have produced before its collapse./pppIn this book, the author uses the Zeus-MP astrophysical hydrodynamics code to model the environment around a stellar progenitor prior to the burst. He then develops a new semi-analytic MHD and emission model to produce light curves for GRBs encountering these realistic density profiles. The work ultimately shows that the circumburst medium surrounding a GRB at the time of the explosion is much more complex than a pure wind, and that observed afterglows are entirely consistent with a large subset of proposed stellar progenitors.