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In Defense Of Negativity

Author: John G. Geer
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226285009
Size: 50.81 MB
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Americans tend to see negative campaign ads as just that: negative. Pundits, journalists, voters, and scholars frequently complain that such ads undermine elections and even democratic government itself. But John G. Geer here takes the opposite stance, arguing that when political candidates attack each other, raising doubts about each other’s views and qualifications, voters—and the democratic process—benefit. In Defense of Negativity, Geer’s study of negative advertising in presidential campaigns from 1960 to 2004, asserts that the proliferating attack ads are far more likely than positive ads to focus on salient political issues, rather than politicians’ personal characteristics. Accordingly, the ads enrich the democratic process, providing voters with relevant and substantial information before they head to the polls. An important and timely contribution to American political discourse, In Defense of Negativity concludes that if we want campaigns to grapple with relevant issues and address real problems, negative ads just might be the solution.

Campaigning For Hearts And Minds

Author: Ted Brader
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226069883
Size: 78.62 MB
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Useful for those wishing to understand how American politics is influenced by advertising, this scientific study examines the effects these emotional appeals in political advertising have on voter decision-making.

Gender Heteronormativity And The American Presidency

Author: Aidan Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351798782
Size: 32.94 MB
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Gender, Heteronormativity and the American Presidency places notions of gender at the center of its analysis of presidential campaign communications. Over the decades, an investment in gendered representations of would-be leaders has changed little, in spite of the second- and third-wave feminist movements. Modern candidates have worked vigorously to demonstrate "compensatory heterosexuality," an unquestionable normative identity that seeks to overcome challenges to their masculinity or femininity. The book draws from a wide range of archived media material, including televised films and advertisements, public debates and speeches, and candidate autobiographies. From the domestic ideals promoted by Eisenhower in the 1950s, right through to the explicit and divisive rhetoric associated with the Clinton/Trump race in 2016; intersectional content and discourse analysis reveals how each presidential candidate used his or her campaign to position themselves as a defender of traditional gender roles, and furthermore, how this investment in "appropriate" gender behaviour was made manifest in both international and domestic policy choices. This book represents a significant and timely contribution to the study of political communication. While communication during presidential elections is a well-established research field, Aidan Smith’s book is the first to apply a gendered lens over such an extended historical period and across the political spectrum.

New Media Campaigning And The 2008 Facebook Election

Author: Thomas J. Johnson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317979400
Size: 61.68 MB
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Some political observers dubbed the 2008 presidential campaign as 'the Facebook Election'. Barack Obama, in particular, employed social media such as blogs, Twitter, Flickr, Digg, YouTube, MySpace and Facebook to run a 'grassroots-style' campaign. The Obama campaign was keenly aware that voters, particularly the young, are not simply consumers of information, but conduits of information as well. They often replaced the professional filter of traditional media with a social one. Social media allowed candidates to do electronically what previously had to be done through shoe leather and phone banks: contact volunteers and donors, and schedule and promote events. The 2008 Election marked a new era where the candidates no longer had complete control over their campaign message. The individual viewer in a campaign crowd with a cell phone can record a candidate’s gaffe, post it on YouTube or Flickr and within days millions will be gasping or guffawing. The traditional campaign, with its centralized power and planning, although not dead, now coexists with an unstructured digital democracy. New Media, Campaigning and the 2008 Facebook Election examines the way social media changed how candidates campaigned, how the media covered the election and how voters received information. This book is based on a special issue of Mass Communication & Society.

Routledge Handbook Of Political Advertising

Author: Christina Holtz-Bacha
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317439783
Size: 11.86 MB
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This Handbook provides the most comprehensive overview of the role of electoral advertising on television and new forms of advertising in countries from all parts of the world currently available. Thematic chapters address advertising effects, negative ads, the perspective of practitioners and gender role. Country chapters summarize research on issues including political and electoral systems; history of ads; the content of ads; reception and effects of ads; regulation of political advertising on television and the Internet; financing political advertising; and prospects for the future. The Handbook confirms that candidates spend the major part of their campaign budget on television advertising. The US enjoys a special situation with almost no restrictions on electoral advertising whereas other countries have regulation for the time, amount and sometimes even the content of electoral advertising or they do not allow television advertising at all. The role that television advertising plays in elections is dependent on the political, the electoral and the media context and can generally be regarded as a reflection of the political culture of a country. The Internet is relatively unregulated and is the channel of the future for political advertising in many countries

Media Effects

Author: Jennings Bryant
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135591105
Size: 19.81 MB
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With contributions from some of the finest scholars in the discipline, Media Effects serves not only as a comprehensive reference volume for media effects study but also as an exceptional textbook for advanced courses in media effects. Covering the breadth of the media effects arena, this third edition provides updated material as well as new chapters focusing on effects of mobile media and other technologies. As this area of study continues to evolve, Media Effects will serve as a benchmark of theory and research for current and future generations of scholars.

Sourcebook For Political Communication Research

Author: Erik P. Bucy
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1135891052
Size: 57.98 MB
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The Sourcebook for Political Communication Research offers a comprehensive resource for current research methods, measures, and analytical techniques. The contents herein cover the major analytical techniques used in political communication research, including surveys, experiments, content analysis, discourse analysis (focus groups and textual analysis), network and deliberation analysis, comparative study designs, statistical analysis, and measurement issues. It also includes such innovations as the use of advanced statistical techniques, and addresses digital media as a means through which to disseminate as well as study political communication. It considers the use of methods adapted from other disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, and neuroscience. With contributions from many of the brightest scholars working in the area today, the Sourcebook is a benchmark volume for research, presenting analytical techniques and investigative frameworks for researching political communication. As such, it is a must-have resource for students and researchers working and studying activity in the political sphere.

Packaging The Presidency

Author: Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199762414
Size: 52.74 MB
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Packaging the Presidency, Third Edition, is now completely updated to offer the only comprehensive study of the history and effects of political advertising in the United States. Noted political critic Kathleen Hall Jamieson traces the development of presidential campaigning from early political songs and slogans through newsprint and radio, and up to the inevitable history of presidential campaigning on television from Eisenhower to Clinton. The book also covers important issues in the debate about political advertising by touching on the development of laws governing political advertising, as well as how such advertising reflects, and at the same time helps to create, the nature of the American political office. Finally, current public concerns about political advertising are addressed as Jamieson raises the topic of ads dealing mainly in images rather than issues, and of political aspirations becoming increasingly only for the rich, who can afford the enormous cost of television advertising.

Presidential Debates

Author: Alan Schroeder
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231541503
Size: 66.18 MB
Format: PDF
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With its keen observations, diligent research, and insider revelations, Alan Schroeder’s popular, big-picture history explores the phenomenon of American presidential debates like no other volume. From pundits to political operatives, debate moderators to the viewing public, Schroeder examines how the various stakeholders make and experience this powerful event. For this third edition, Schroeder analyzes the 2008 and 2012 presidential debates and the role of social media and contemporary news outlets in shaping their design and reception. He also expands his coverage of previous campaigns, including the landmark 1960 meeting between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. Second only to the Super Bowl in viewers, presidential debates are must-see TV, yet their conception and execution largely remain a mystery to the public—even to journalists. Schroeder details the key phases of the debate: anticipation, in which campaigns negotiate rules, formulate strategy, prepare answers, and steer press coverage; execution, in which the candidates, moderators, panelists, and television professionals create and project the event; and reaction, in which commentators, spin doctors, and the public evaluate the performance and move storylines in new directions. New chapters focus on real-time debate responses and the extent to which post-debate news coverage influences voter decision making and candidate behavior.

The Positive Case For Negative Campaigning

Author: Kyle Mattes
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022620216X
Size: 28.26 MB
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For decades the conventional wisdom has been that voters hate negative campaigning. Some have even argued that it can be a deterrent to voting at all. The Positive Case for Negative Campaigning shows that negativity in campaigns is not only necessary, but is also often viewed as acceptable by voters themselves. The most comprehensive treatment to date of negativity in campaigns, Mattes and Redlawsk's book attacks the subject using a host of different approaches, including formal models, survey research, and laboratory experiments. The ability of candidates to go on the attack and to explicitly focus on information that otherwise would not be revealed, provides voters with more and fuller information than they would have otherwise had. At the same time, the authors find that voters can and do accept negativity as a legitimate part of the political environment. Much of their supposed dislike can be explained by how survey questions are worded. Voters' responses to negativity vary greatly and can be better explained by the content and believability of the ads than simply by whether the ads are negative. All told, Mattes and Redlawsk make an original and compelling case that voters are not as negative about negativity as previously believed, as well as for its positive benefits in political campaigning.