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In The Shadow Of The Bomb

Author: Silvan S. Schweber
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849497
Size: 64.72 MB
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In the Shadow of the Bomb narrates how two charismatic, exceptionally talented physicists--J. Robert Oppenheimer and Hans A. Bethe--came to terms with the nuclear weapons they helped to create. In 1945, the United States dropped the bomb, and physicists were forced to contemplate disquieting questions about their roles and responsibilities. When the Cold War followed, they were confronted with political demands for their loyalty and McCarthyism's threats to academic freedom. By examining how Oppenheimer and Bethe--two men with similar backgrounds but divergent aspirations and characters--struggled with these moral dilemmas, one of our foremost historians of physics tells the story of modern physics, the development of atomic weapons, and the Cold War. Oppenheimer and Bethe led parallel lives. Both received liberal educations that emphasized moral as well as intellectual growth. Both were outstanding theoreticians who worked on the atom bomb at Los Alamos. Both advised the government on nuclear issues, and both resisted the development of the hydrogen bomb. Both were, in their youth, sympathetic to liberal causes, and both were later called to defend the United States against Soviet communism and colleagues against anti-Communist crusaders. Finally, both prized scientific community as a salve to the apparent failure of Enlightenment values. Yet, their responses to the use of the atom bomb, the testing of the hydrogen bomb, and the treachery of domestic politics differed markedly. Bethe, who drew confidence from scientific achievement and integration into the physics community, preserved a deep integrity. By accepting a modest role, he continued to influence policy and contributed to the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. In contrast, Oppenheimer first embodied a new scientific persona--the scientist who creates knowledge and technology affecting all humanity and boldly addresses their impact--and then could not carry its burden. His desire to retain insider status, combined with his isolation from creative work and collegial scientific community, led him to compromise principles and, ironically, to lose prestige and fall victim to other insiders. Schweber draws on his vast knowledge of science and its history--in addition to his unique access to the personalities involved--to tell a tale of two men that will enthrall readers interested in science, history, and the lives and minds of great thinkers.

Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel Mit Bohr Einstein Heisenberg U A Scientific Correspondence With Bohr Einstein Heisenberg A O

Author: Wolfgang Pauli
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3540268324
Size: 62.25 MB
Format: PDF
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Mit dem Druck von Wolfgang Paulis Briefwechsel aus seinen letzten beiden Lebensjahren wird eine großangelegte Edition der gesamten wissenschaftlichen Korrespondenz eines der bedeutendsten theoretischen Physiker des 20. Jahrhunderts abgeschlossen, der an der Entwicklung der wichtigsten physikalischen Ideen und Theorien, insbesondere an der Relativitätstheorie und Quantentheorie sowie deren weiteren Ausbau zu einer Feld- und Elementarteilchentheorie, teilgenommen hat. Der vorliegende besonders umfangreiche Band mit 711 Briefen behandelt die durch Wu, Telegdi, Lederman u.a. bei den schwachen Wechselwirkungen beobachtete Paritätsverletzung, bei der das einst von Pauli postulierte Neutrino eine herausragende Rolle spielt und die in der Theorie der Elementarteilchen einen allgemeinen Umschwung einleitete. Neue Einblicke vermittelt der Briefwechsel in die enge Zusammenarbeit von Pauli und Heisenberg anlässlich einer damals entwickelten einheitlichen Feldtheorie der Elementarteilchen. This volume of the letters Wolfgang Pauli wrote during the final two years of his life completes the publication of the entire scientific correspondence of one of the most important theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Pauli played a vital role in the development of the most important physical ideas and theories of his time: relativity and quantum mechanics, in particular, and also in their extension to elementary particle field theory. This especially extensive volume covers more than 700 letters between Pauli and scientists such as Wu, Telegdi, Lederman and others, in which he discussed parity violation observed under the weak interaction in which the neutrino (first postulated by Pauli) plays a crucial role. The letters also provide new insights into the close cooperation between Pauli and Heisenberg on their work on the unified field theory of elementary particles, which was being developed at that time.

Positioning The History Of Science

Author: Kostas Gavroglu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402054203
Size: 31.85 MB
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This volume, compiled in honor of Sam Schweber, an outstanding historian of science, physicist and exceptional human being, offers a comprehensive survey of the present state of the history of science. It collects essays written by leading representatives in the field. The essays examine the state of the history of science today and issues related to its future.

College Of Science And Engineering

Author: Thomas J. Misa
ISBN: 0557739985
Size: 47.97 MB
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"I was fortunate in having an instructor at the University of Minnesota who was looking after me," recalled one electrical engineering graduate of 1949. "When I said, 'What's next?' he said, 'If I were you, I'd just go down the street here to Engineering Research Associates, and I'd think you'd like what they're doing there'." That was Seymour Cray, and his computer designs helped create a notable computer industry in the Twin Cities. Another Minnesota graduate, Earl Bakken (class of 1948), founded Medtronic and the core of a nationally renowned medical devices industry. For 75 years the Institute of Technology, now the College of Science and Engineering, has pioneered in research, innovation, and technology transfer to Minnesota and the world. The people behind this unique institution are revealed in this concise illustrated history, prepared by its own team of professional historians.

New Dictionary Of Scientific Biography

Author: Noretta Koertge
Publisher: Scribner
ISBN: 9780684313214
Size: 16.10 MB
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Also available online as part of the Gale Virtual Reference Library under the title Complete dictionary of scientific biography.