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Information Algebras

Author: Juerg Kohlas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447100093
Size: 36.62 MB
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Information usually comes in pieces, from different sources. It refers to different, but related questions. Therefore information needs to be aggregated and focused onto the relevant questions. Considering combination and focusing of information as the relevant operations leads to a generic algebraic structure for information. This book introduces and studies information from this algebraic point of view. Algebras of information provide the necessary abstract framework for generic inference procedures. They allow the application of these procedures to a large variety of different formalisms for representing information. At the same time they permit a generic study of conditional independence, a property considered as fundamental for knowledge presentation. Information algebras provide a natural framework to define and study uncertain information. Uncertain information is represented by random variables that naturally form information algebras. This theory also relates to probabilistic assumption-based reasoning in information systems and is the basis for the belief functions in the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence.

Formal Theories Of Information

Author: Giovanni Sommaruga
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642006590
Size: 12.10 MB
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It is commonly assumed that computers process information. But what is inf- mation? In a technical, important, but nevertheless rather narrow sense, Sh- non’sinformationtheorygivesa?rstanswertothisquestion.Thistheoryfocuses on measuring the information content of a message. Essentially this measure is the reduction of the uncertainty obtained by receiving a message. The unc- tainty of a situation of ignorance in turn is measured by entropy. This theory hashad an immense impact on the technologyof information storage,data c- pression, information transmission and coding and still is a very active domain of research. Shannon’s theory has also attractedmuch interest in a more philosophic look at information, although it was readily remarked that it is only a “syntactic” theory of information and neglects “semantic” issues. Several attempts have been made in philosophy to give information theory a semantic ?avor, but still mostly based on or at least linked to Shannon’s theory. Approaches to semantic informationtheoryalsoveryoftenmakeuseofformallogic.Thereby,information is linked to reasoning, deduction and inference, as well as to decision making. Further, entropy and related measure were soon found to have important connotations with regard to statistical inference. Surely, statistical data and observation represent information, information about unknown, hidden para- ters. Thus a whole branch of statistics developed around concepts of Shannon’s information theory or derived from them. Also some proper measurements - propriate for statistics, like Fisher’s information, were proposed.

Principles Of Security And Trust

Author: Frank Piessens
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662496356
Size: 41.16 MB
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Principles of Security and Trust, POST 2016, which took place in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, in April 2016, held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2016. The 12 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: information flow; models and applications; protocols.

Information Flow

Author: Jon Barwise
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521583862
Size: 33.36 MB
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Information is a central topic in computer science, cognitive science, and philosophy. In spite of its importance in the "information age," there is no consensus on what information is, what makes it possible, and what it means for one medium to carry information about another. Drawing on ideas from mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, this book addresses the definition and place of information in society. The authors, observing that information flow is possible only within a connected distribution system, provide a mathematically rigorous, philosophically sound foundation for a science of information. They illustrate their theory by applying it to a wide range of phenomena, from file transfer to DNA, from quantum mechanics to speech act theory.

Discrete Mathematics Using A Computer

Author: Cordelia Hall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447136578
Size: 52.74 MB
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Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools such as proof checkers. These connections are emphasised throughout the book. Software tools (see Appendix A) enable the computer to serve as a calculator, but instead of just doing arithmetic and trigonometric functions, it will be used to calculate with sets, relations, functions, predicates and inferences. There are also special software tools, for example a proof checker for logical proofs using natural deduction.

Logic And Complexity

Author: Richard Lassaigne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0857293923
Size: 16.24 MB
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Logic and Complexity looks at basic logic as it is used in Computer Science, and provides students with a logical approach to Complexity theory. With plenty of exercises, this book presents classical notions of mathematical logic, such as decidability, completeness and incompleteness, as well as new ideas brought by complexity theory such as NP-completeness, randomness and approximations, providing a better understanding for efficient algorithmic solutions to problems. Divided into three parts, it covers: - Model Theory and Recursive Functions - introducing the basic model theory of propositional, 1st order, inductive definitions and 2nd order logic. Recursive functions, Turing computability and decidability are also examined. - Descriptive Complexity - looking at the relationship between definitions of problems, queries, properties of programs and their computational complexity. - Approximation - explaining how some optimization problems and counting problems can be approximated according to their logical form. Logic is important in Computer Science, particularly for verification problems and database query languages such as SQL. Students and researchers in this field will find this book of great interest.