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Information And Self Organization

Author: Hermann Haken
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662078937
Size: 21.73 MB
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Complex systems are ubiquitous, and practically all branches of science ranging from physics through chemistry and biology to economics and sociology have to deal with them. In this book we wish to present concepts and methods for dealing with complex systems from a unifying point of view. Therefore it may be of inter est to graduate students, professors and research workers who are concerned with theoretical work in the above-mentioned fields. The basic idea for our unified ap proach sterns from that of synergetics. In order to find unifying principles we shall focus our attention on those situations where a complex system changes its macroscopic behavior qualitatively, or in other words, where it changes its macroscopic spatial, temporal or functional structure. Until now, the theory of synergetics has usually begun with a microscopic or mesoscopic description of a complex system. In this book we present an approach which starts out from macroscopic data. In particular we shall treat systems that acquire their new structure without specific interference from the outside; i. e. systems which are self-organizing. The vehicle we shall use is information. Since this word has several quite different meanings, all of which are important for our purpose, we shall discuss its various aspects. These range from Shannon information, from which all semantics has been exorcised, to the effects of information on receivers and the self-creation of meaning.

Energy Information Feedback Adaptation And Self Organization

Author: Spyros G Tzafestas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319669990
Size: 38.52 MB
Format: PDF
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This unique book offers a comprehensive and integrated introduction to the five fundamental elements of life and society: energy, information, feedback, adaptation, and self-organization. It is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with energy (definition, history, energy types, energy sources, environmental impact); thermodynamics (laws, entropy definitions, energy, branches of thermodynamics, entropy interpretations, arrow of time); information (communication and transmission, modulation–demodulation, coding–decoding, information theory, information technology, information science, information systems); feedback control (history, classical methodologies, modern methodologies); adaptation (definition, mechanisms, measurement, complex adaptive systems, complexity, emergence); and self-organization (definitions/opinions, self-organized criticality, cybernetics, self-organization in complex adaptive systems, examples in nature). In turn, Part II studies the roles, impacts, and applications of the five above-mentioned elements in life and society, namely energy (biochemical energy pathways, energy flows through food chains, evolution of energy resources, energy and economy); information (information in biology, biocomputation, information technology in office automation, power generation/distribution, manufacturing, business, transportation), feedback (temperature, water, sugar and hydrogen ion regulation, autocatalysis, biological modeling, control of hard/technological and soft/managerial systems), adaptation and self-organization (ecosystems, climate change, stock market, knowledge management, man-made self-organized controllers, traffic lights control).

Physics Of Self Organization And Evolution

Author: Werner Ebeling
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527636803
Size: 27.89 MB
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This thoroughly updated version of the German authoritative work on self-organization has been completely rewritten by internationally renowned experts and experienced book authors to also include a review of more recent literature. It retains the original enthusiasm and fascination surrounding thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium, synergetics, and the origin of life, representing an easily readable book and tutorial on this exciting field. The book is unique in covering in detail the experimental and theoretical fundamentals of self-organizing systems as well as such selected features as random processes, structural networks and multistable systems, while focusing on the physical and theoretical modeling of natural selection and evolution processes. The authors take examples from physics, chemistry, biology and social systems, and include results hitherto unpublished in English. The result is a one-stop resource relevant for students and scientists in physics or related interdisciplinary fields, including mathematical physics, biophysics, information science and nanotechnology.

Synergetics

Author: Michael Bushev
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810212865
Size: 55.69 MB
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For centuries, humankind has believed that the world with all its form and structure was created by supernatural forces. In recent decades science has shaken these beliefs with the discovery of the exciting possibility of a self-created and self-creating world ? of self-organization. Synergetics endeavours to reveal the intimate mechanisms of self-organization. The transitions from chaos to order, the nature of self-organization, the various approaches to it and certain philosophical inferences are outlined. Synergetics thus represents a remarkable confluence of many strands of thought, and has become a paradigm in modern culture. This book exposes the reader to striking new vistas in physics and mathematics, chemistry and biology, social sciences and philosophy ? all interlocked around the concept of self-organization.

Self Organization And Associative Memory

Author: Teuvo Kohonen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662007843
Size: 78.39 MB
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Two significant things have happened since the writing of the first edition in 1983. One of them is recent arousal of strong interest in general aspects of "neural computing", or "neural networks", as the previous neural models are nowadays called. The incentive, of course, has been to develop new com puters. Especially it may have been felt that the so-called fifth-generation computers, based on conventional logic programming, do not yet contain in formation processing principles of the same type as those encountered in the brain. All new ideas for the "neural computers" are, of course, welcome. On the other hand, it is not very easy to see what kind of restrictions there exist to their implementation. In order to approach this problem systematically, cer tain lines of thought, disciplines, and criteria should be followed. It is the pur pose of the added Chapter 9 to reflect upon such problems from a general point of view. Another important thing is a boom of new hardware technologies for dis tributed associative memories, especially high-density semiconductor circuits, and optical materials and components. The era is very close when the parallel processors can be made all-optical. Several working associative memory archi tectures, based solely on optical technologies, have been constructed in recent years. For this reason it was felt necessary to include a separate chapter (Chap. 10) which deals with the optical associative memories. Part of its con tents is taken over from the first edition.

Self Organization In Biological Systems

Author: Scott Camazine
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691116242
Size: 57.11 MB
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Researchers are finding in certain patterns in nature - phenomena that have fascinated naturalists for centuries - a fertile approach to understanding biological systems: the study of self-organization. This work introduces readers to the basic concepts and tools for studying self-organization.

Systems Self Organisation And Information

Author: Alfredo Pereira (Jr.)
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138609921
Size: 19.56 MB
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Complex system studies are a growing area of central importance to a wide range of disciplines, ranging from physics to politics and beyond. Adopting this interdisciplinary approach, Systems, Self-Organisation and Information presents and discusses a range of ground-breaking research in complex systems theory. Building upon foundational concepts, the volume introduces a theory of Self-Organization, providing definitions of concepts including system, structure, organization, functionality, and boundary. Biophysical and cognitive approaches to Self-Organization are also covered, discussing the complex dynamics of living beings and the brain, and self-organized adaptation and learning in computational systems. The convergence of Peircean philosophy with the study of Self-Organization also provides an original pathway of research, which contributes to a dialogue between pragmatism, semeiotics, complexity theory, and self-organizing systems. As one of the few interdisciplinary works on systems theory, relating Self-Organization and Information Theory, Systems, Self-Organisation and Information is an invaluable resource for researchers and postgraduate students interested in complex systems theory from related disciplines including philosophy, physics, and engineering.

Self Organizing Maps

Author: Teuvo Kohonen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540679219
Size: 49.58 MB
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The Self-Organizing Map (SOM), with its variants, is the most popular artificial neural network algorithm in the unsupervised learning category. Many fields of science have adopted the SOM as a standard analytical tool: in statistics,signal processing, control theory, financial analyses, experimental physics, chemistry and medicine. A new area is organization of very large document collections. The SOM is also one of the most realistic models of the biological brain functions. This new edition includes a survey of over 2000 contemporary studies to cover the newest results; the case examples were provided with detailed formulae, illustrations and tables; a new chapter on software tools for SOM was written, other chapters were extended or reorganized.

Synergetics

Author: Hermann Haken
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642883389
Size: 41.63 MB
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Over the past years the field of synergetics has been mushrooming. An ever increasing number of scientific papers are published on the subject, and numerous conferences all over the world are devoted to it. Depending on the particular aspects of synergetics being treated, these conferences can have such varied titles as "Nonequilibrium Nonlinear Statistical Physics," "Self-Organization," "Chaos and Order," and others. Many professors and students have expressed the view that the present book provides a good introduction to this new field. This is also reflected by the fact that it has been translated into Russian, Japanese, Chinese, German, and other languages, and that the second edition has also sold out. I am taking the third edition as an opportunity to cover some important recent developments and to make the book still more readable. First, I have largely revised the section on self-organization in continuously extended media and entirely rewritten the section on the Benard instability. Sec ond, because the methods of synergetics are penetrating such fields as eco nomics, I have included an economic model on the transition from full employ ment to underemployment in which I use the concept of nonequilibrium phase transitions developed elsewhere in the book. Third, because a great many papers are currently devoted to the fascinating problem of chaotic motion, I have added a section on discrete maps. These maps are widely used in such problems, and can reveal period-doubling bifurcations, intermittency, and chaos.