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International Courts And Environmental Protection

Author: Tim Stephens
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521881226
Size: 47.90 MB
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A comprehensive examination of international environmental litigation which addresses the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century.

Science And The Precautionary Principle In International Courts And Tribunals

Author: Caroline E. Foster
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500163
Size: 19.25 MB
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By canvassing a range of international scientific disputes, including the EC-Biotech and EC-Hormones disputes in the WTO, the case concerning Pulp Mills and the Gabcíkovo–Nagymaros case in the International Court of Justice, and the Mox Plant and Land Reclamation cases dealt with under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Caroline Foster examines how the precautionary principle can be accommodated within the rules about proof and evidence and advises on the boundary emerging between the roles of experts and tribunals. A new form of reassessment proceedings for use in exceptional cases is proposed. Breaking new ground, this book seeks to advance international adjudicatory practice by contextualising developments in the taking of expert evidence and analysing the justification of and potential techniques for a precautionary reversal of the burden of proof, as well as methods for dealing with important scientific discoveries subsequent to judgements and awards.

International Law And The Arctic

Author: Michael Byers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107042755
Size: 66.15 MB
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Sets out the international law relevant to the Arctic, from indigenous peoples to environmental protection to oil and gas exploration.

Sovereign Defaults Before International Courts And Tribunals

Author: Michael Waibel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139496131
Size: 26.28 MB
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International law on sovereign defaults is underdeveloped because States have largely refrained from adjudicating disputes arising out of public debt. The looming new wave of sovereign defaults is likely to shift dispute resolution away from national courts to international tribunals and transform the current regime for restructuring sovereign debt. Michael Waibel assesses how international tribunals balance creditor claims and sovereign capacity to pay across time. The history of adjudicating sovereign defaults internationally over the last 150 years offers a rich repository of experience for future cases: US state defaults, quasi-receiverships in the Dominican Republic and Ottoman Empire, the Venezuela Preferential Case, the Soviet repudiation in 1917, the League of Nations, the World War Foreign Debt Commission, Germany's 30-year restructuring after 1918 and ICSID arbitration on Argentina's default in 2001. The remarkable continuity in international practice and jurisprudence suggests avenues for building durable institutions capable of resolving future sovereign defaults.

Enforcing Obligations Erga Omnes In International Law

Author: Christian J. Tams
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139448802
Size: 57.30 MB
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The concept of obligations erga omnes - obligations to the international community as a whole - has fascinated international lawyers for decades, yet its precise implications remain unclear. This book assesses how this concept affects the enforcement of international law. It shows that all States are entitled to invoke obligations erga omnes in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, and to take countermeasures in response to serious erga omnes breaches. In addition, it suggests ways of identifying obligations that qualify as erga omnes. In order to sustain these results, the book conducts a thorough examination of international practice and jurisprudence as well as the recent work of the UN International Law Commission in the field of State responsibility. By so doing, it demonstrates that the erga omnes concept is solidly grounded in modern international law, and clarifies one of the central aspects of the international regime of law enforcement.

Transboundary Damage In International Law

Author: Hanqin Xue
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139438100
Size: 47.12 MB
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The Chernobyl disaster, the Amoco Cadiz oil spill and the Colorado River dispute are examples of an activity conducted by one state which has serious adverse effects in the territory of another, or in global common areas. This book details the international rules and compensation procedures and is intended for use by governmental officials, international lawyers and jurists. It discusses existing laws on international liability and considers the underlying legal issues that require further development. It is one of the few books on the subject written from the perspective of a developing country with rapid economic and social development.

Domestic Politics And International Human Rights Tribunals

Author: Courtney Hillebrecht
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107040221
Size: 46.83 MB
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International politics has become increasingly legalized over the past fifty years, restructuring the way states interact with each other, international institutions, and their own constituents. The international legalization of human rights now makes it possible for individuals to take human rights claims against their governments at international courts such as the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. This book brings together theories from international law, human rights and international relations to explain the increasingly important phenomenon of states' compliance with human rights tribunals' rulings. It argues that this is an inherently domestic affair. It posits three overarching questions: why do states comply with human rights tribunals' rulings? How does the compliance process unfold and what are the domestic political considerations around compliance? What effect does compliance have on the protection of human rights? The book answers these through a combination of quantitative analyses and in-depth case studies from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Italy, Portugal, Russia and the United Kingdom.

Shipping Interdiction And The Law Of The Sea

Author: Douglas Guilfoyle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521760194
Size: 63.55 MB
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In this comparative study of shipping interdiction, Douglas Guilfoyle considers the State action of stopping, searching and arresting foreign flag vessels and crew on the high seas in cases such as piracy, slavery, drug smuggling, fisheries management, migrant smuggling, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and maritime terrorism. Interdiction raises important questions of jurisdiction, including: how permission to board a foreign vessel is obtained; whether boarding State or flag State law applies during the interdiction (or whether both apply); and which State has jurisdiction to prosecute any crimes discovered. Rules on the use of force and protection of human rights, compensation for wrongful interdiction and the status of boarding State officers under flag State law are also examined. A unified and practical view is taken of the law applicable across existing interdiction regimes based on an extensive survey of state practice.