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Chemical Principles In The Laboratory

Author: Emil Slowinski
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0840048343
Size: 16.26 MB
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This Tenth Edition of CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE LABORATORY maintains the high-quality, time-tested experiments and techniques that have made it a perennial bestseller. Author Wayne Wolsey, with the help of new co-author Rob Rossi, continues to offer complete coverage of basic chemistry principles and present topics in a direct, easy-to-understand manner. Now, to benefit the environment and reduce the overall cost of the experiments, the new edition features a deepened commitment to green chemistry by reducing the volume and toxicity of experiments as much as possible. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Chemistry Education And Contributions From History And Philosophy Of Science

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319262483
Size: 74.23 MB
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This book explores the relationship between the content of chemistry education and the history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework that underlies such education. It discusses the need to present an image that reflects how chemistry developed and progresses. It proposes that chemistry should be taught the way it is practiced by chemists: as a human enterprise, at the interface of scientific practice and HPS. Finally, it sets out to convince teachers to go beyond the traditional classroom practice and explore new teaching strategies. The importance of HPS has been recognized for the science curriculum since the middle of the 20th century. The need for teaching chemistry within a historical context is not difficult to understand as HPS is not far below the surface in any science classroom. A review of the literature shows that the traditional chemistry classroom, curricula, and textbooks while dealing with concepts such as law, theory, model, explanation, hypothesis, observation, evidence and idealization, generally ignore elements of the history and philosophy of science. This book proposes that the conceptual understanding of chemistry requires knowledge and understanding of the history and philosophy of science. “Professor Niaz’s book is most welcome, coming at a time when there is an urgently felt need to upgrade the teaching of science. The book is a huge aid for adding to the usual way - presenting science as a series of mere facts - also the necessary mandate: to show how science is done, and how science, through its history and philosophy, is part of the cultural development of humanity.” Gerald Holton, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics & Professor of History of Science, Harvard University “In this stimulating and sophisticated blend of history of chemistry, philosophy of science, and science pedagogy, Professor Mansoor Niaz has succeeded in offering a promising new approach to the teaching of fundamental ideas in chemistry. Historians and philosophers of chemistry --- and above all, chemistry teachers --- will find this book full of valuable and highly usable new ideas” Alan Rocke, Case Western Reserve University “This book artfully connects chemistry and chemistry education to the human context in which chemical science is practiced and the historical and philosophical background that illuminates that practice. Mansoor Niaz deftly weaves together historical episodes in the quest for scientific knowledge with the psychology of learning and philosophical reflections on the nature of scientific knowledge and method. The result is a compelling case for historically and philosophically informed science education. Highly recommended!” Harvey Siegel, University of Miami “Books that analyze the philosophy and history of science in Chemistry are quite rare. ‘Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science’ by Mansoor Niaz is one of the rare books on the history and philosophy of chemistry and their importance in teaching this science. The book goes through all the main concepts of chemistry, and analyzes the historical and philosophical developments as well as their reflections in textbooks. Closest to my heart is Chapter 6, which is devoted to the chemical bond, the glue that holds together all matter in our earth. The chapter emphasizes the revolutionary impact of the concept of the ‘covalent bond’ on the chemical community and the great novelty of the idea that was conceived 11 years before quantum mechanics was able to offer the mechanism of electron pairing and covalent bonding. The author goes then to describe the emergence of two rival theories that explained the nature of the chemical bond in terms of quantum mechanics; these are valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. He emphasizes the importance of having rival theories and interpretations in science and its advancement. He further argues that this VB-MO rivalry is still alive and together the two conceptual frames serve as the tool kit for thinking and doing chemistry in creative manners. The author surveys chemistry textbooks in the light of the how the books preserve or not the balance between the two theories in describing various chemical phenomena. This Talmudic approach of conceptual tension is a universal characteristic of any branch of evolving wisdom. As such, Mansoor’s book would be of great utility for chemistry teachers to examine how can they become more effective teachers by recognizing the importance of conceptual tension”. Sason Shaik Saeree K. and Louis P. Fiedler Chair in Chemistry Director, The Lise Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL

Reconstruction Of Wave Particle Duality And Its Implications For General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400743963
Size: 42.13 MB
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It goes without saying that atomic structure, including its dual wave-particle nature, cannot be demonstrated in the classroom. Thus, for most science teachers, especially those in physics and chemistry, the textbook is their key resource and their students’ core source of information. Science education historiography recognizes the role played by the history and philosophy of science in developing the content of our textbooks, and with this in mind, the authors analyze more than 120 general chemistry textbooks published in the USA, based on criteria derived from a historical reconstruction of wave-particle duality. They come to some revealing conclusions, including the fact that very few textbooks discussed issues such as the suggestion, by both Einstein and de Broglie, and before conclusive experimental evidence was available, that wave-particle duality existed. Other large-scale omissions included de Broglie’s prescription for observing this duality, and the importance of the Davisson-Germer experiments, as well as the struggle to interpret the experimental data they were collecting. Also untouched was the background to the role played by Schrödinger in developing de Broglie’s ideas. The authors argue that rectifying these deficiencies will arouse students’ curiosity by giving them the opportunity to engage creatively with the content of science curricula. They also assert that it isn’t just the experimental data in science that matters, but the theoretical insights and unwonted inspirations, too. In addition, the controversies and discrepancies in the theoretical and experimental record are key drivers in understanding the development of science as we know it today.

General Chemistry Principles And Modern Applications 10th Ed Petrucci Herring Madura Bissonnette 2011

Author: Pearson Canada Education, Inc
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
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About the Authors Ralph H. Petrucci Ralph Petrucci received his B.S. in Chemistry from Union College, Schenectady, NY, and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin Madison. Following ten years of teaching, research, consulting, and directing the NSF Institutes for Secondary School Science Teachers at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, Dr. Petrucci joined the planning staff of the new California State University campus at San Bernardino in 1964. There, in addition to his faculty appointment, he served as Chairman of the Natural Sciences Division and Dean of Academic Planning. Professor Petrucci, now retired from teaching, is also a coauthor of General Chemistry with John W. Hill, Terry W. McCreary, and Scott S. Perry. F. Geoffrey Herring Geoff Herring received both his B.Sc. and his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, from the University of London. He is currently a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemistry of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dr. Herring has research interests in biophysical chemistry and has published more than 100 papers in physical chemistry and chemical physics. Recently, Dr. Herring has undertaken studies in the use of information technology and interactive engagement methods in teaching general chemistry with a view to improving student comprehension and learning. Dr. Herring has taught chemistry from undergraduate to graduate levels for 30 years and has twice been the recipient of the Killam Prize for Excellence in Teaching. Jeffry D. Madura Jeffry D. Madura is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Duquesne University located in Pittsburgh, PA. He earned a B.A. from Thiel College in 1980 and a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Purdue University in 1985. The Ph.D. was followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in biophysics with Professor J. Andrew McCammon at the University of Houston. Dr. Madura s research interests are in computational chemistry and biophysics. He has published more than 80 papers in physical chemistry and chemical physics. Dr. Madura has taught chemistry from undergraduate to graduate levels for 20 years and was the recipient of a Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award. He also received the Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences and the Duquesne University Presidential Award for Excellence in Scholarship in 2007. Carey Bissonnette Carey Bissonnette is Continuing Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Waterloo, Ontario. He received his B.Sc. from the University of Waterloo in 1989 and his Ph.D. in 1993 from the University of Cambridge in England. His research interests are in the development of methods for modeling dynamical processes of polyatomic molecules in the gas phase. He has won awards for excellence in teaching, including the University of Waterloo s Distinguished Teacher Award in 2005. Dr. Bissonnette has made extensive use of technology in both the classroom and the laboratory to create an interactive environment for his students to learn and explore. For the past several years, he has been actively engaged in undergraduate curriculum development, highschool liaison activities, and the coordination of the university s high-school chemistry contests, which are written each year by students around the world. xiv Preface Know your audience. For this new edition, we have tried to follow this important advice by attending even more to the needs of students who are taking a serious journey through this material. We also know that most general chemistry students have career interests not in chemistry but in other areas such as biology, medicine, engineering, environmental science, and agricultural sciences. And we understand that general chemistry will be the only university or college chemistry course for some students, and thus their only opportunity to learn some practical applications of chemistry. We have designed this book for all these students. Students of this text should have already studied some chemistry. But those with no prior background and those who could use a refresher will find that the early chapters develop fundamental concepts from the most elementary ideas. Students who do plan to become professional chemists will also find opportunities in the text to pursue their own special interests. The typical student may need help identifying and applying principles and visualizing their physical significance. The pedagogical features of this text are designed to provide this help. At the same time, we hope the text serves to sharpen student skills in problem solving and critical thinking. Thus, we have tried to strike the proper balances between principles and applications, qualitative and quantitative discussions, and rigor and simplification. Throughout the text and on the Mastering Chemistry site (www.mastering chemistry.com) we provide real-world examples to enhance the discussion. Examples relevant to the biological sciences, engineering, and the environmental sciences will be found in numerous places. This should help to bring the chemistry alive for these students and help them understand its relevance to their career interests. It also, in most cases, should help them master core concepts. ORGANIZATION In this edition we retain the core organization of the ninth edition of this text, but with additional depth and breadth of coverage of material in several areas. After a brief overview of core concepts in Chapter 1, we introduce atomic theory, including the periodic table, in Chapter 2. The periodic table is an extraordinarily useful tool, and presenting it early allows us to use the periodic table in new ways throughout the early chapters of the text. In Chapter 3 we introduce chemical compounds and their stoichiometry. Organic compounds are included in this presentation. The early introduction of organic compounds allows us to use organic examples throughout the book. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce chemical reactions. We discuss gases in Chapter 6, partly because they are familiar to students (which helps them build confidence), but also because some instructors prefer to cover this material early to better integrate their lecture and lab programs. Note that Chapter 6 can easily be deferred for coverage with the other states of matter, in Chapter 12. In Chapter 8 we delve more deeply into wave mechanics, although we do so in a way that allows omission of this material at the instructor s discretion. As with previous editions, we have emphasized realworld chemistry in the final chapters that cover descriptive chemistry (Chapters 21 24), and we have tried to make this material easy to bring forward into earlier parts of the text. Moreover, many topics in these chapters can be covered selectively, without requiring the study of entire chapters. The text ends with comprehensive chapters on organic chemistry (Chapters 26 and 27) and biochemistry (Chapter 28). CHANGES TO THIS EDITION For this edition, we have strengthened the pedagogical apparatus and increased the depth of coverage in selected areas all in accordance with contemporary thoughts about how best to teach general chemistry. We have also made a number of smaller organizational changes to improve the flow of information. The following summarizes the major improvements made throughout the book. Logical approach to solving problems. All worked examples are presented consistently throughout the text by using a tripartite structure of Analyze-Solve-Assess. This presentation not only encourages students to use a logical approach in solving problems but also provides them with a way to start when they are trying to solve a problem that may seem, at first, impossibly difficult. The approach is used implicitly by those who have had plenty of practice solving problems; but for those who are just starting out, the Analyze-Solve-Assess structure will serve to remind students to (1) analyze the information and plan a strategy, (2) implement the strategy, and (3) check or assess their answer to ensure that it is a reasonable one. Integrative Practice Examples and End of Chapter Exercises. Users of previous editions have given us very positive feedback about the quality of the integrative examples at the end of each chapter and the variety of the end-of-chapter exercises. We have added two practice examples (Practice Example A and Practice Example B) to every Integrative Example in the text. Rather than replace end-of-chapter exercises with new exercises, we have opted in most chapters to increase the number of exercises. In most chapters, at least 10 new exercises have been added; and in many chapters, 20 or more exercises have been added. Use of IUPAC recommendations. We are pleased that our book serves the needs of instructors and students around the globe. Because communication among scientists in general, and chemists in particular, is made easier when we agree to use the same terms and notations, we have decided to follow with relatively few exceptions recommendations made by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). In particular, the version of the periodic table that now appears throughout the text is based on the one currently endorsed by IUPAC. The IUPAC-endorsed version places the elements lanthanum (La) and actinium (Ac) in the lanthanides and actinides series, respectively, rather than in group 3. Interestingly, almost every other chemistry book still uses the old version of the periodic table, even though the proper placement of La and Ac has been known for more than 20 years! We have also made the following important changes in specific chapters and appendices: In Chapters 1 to 6, many problems are solved by using both a stepwise approach and a conversion pathway approach. Students with no chemistry background may be intimidated by the conversion pathway approach and may prefer a stepwise approach. Those who require only a refresher will likely prefer and use the conversion pathway approach. We hope that the needs of both instructors and students will be well served by showing both approaches in the early chapters. In Chapter 6 (Gases), we have changed the definition of standard temperature and pressure (STP) to conform to the IUPAC recommendations. Also, we have added discussion about the molar volumes of gases and the distribution of molecular speeds. The discussion about the distribution of molecular speeds may be used as a springboard for justifying the Arrhenius form of the rate constant in Chapter 14 Chemical Kinetics. In Chapter 8 (Electrons in Atoms), we have put the material on the particlein- a box into a separate section that can be used, or excluded, at the instructor s discretion. The discussion has been expanded slightly to illustrate how wave functions are used to make probability statements for an electron in a particular state. In Chapter 10 (Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts), we have introduced the dash-and-wedge symbolism for representing three-dimensional structures of molecules, and this symbolism is used throughout the remainder of the text. Also, we have added a new Are You Wondering? box comparing oxidation states and formal charges. Chapter 12 (Intermolecular Forces: Liquids and Solids), has been reorganized so that intermolecular forces are discussed first. Trends in the properties of liquids and solids are then discussed in terms of the intermolecular forces contributing to the attraction among the entities making up the substance. In Chapter 14 (Chemical Kinetics), we have adopted the IUPAC recommendation for defining reaction rates, which takes into account the stoichiometric coefficients of the balanced chemical equation. We have also included a new Are You Wondering? box that provides a molecular interpretation of reaction progress. In Chapter 15 (Principles of Chemical Equilibrium), we have expanded the discussion of the relationships among activities, pressure and concentrations, and also among , and . In Chapter 16 (Acids and Bases), we have used curved arrows in a manner that is consistent with their use in organic chemistry, that is, to emphasize the movement of electron pairs in acid base reactions. Also, we present an improved and modernized discussion of the connection between molecular structure and acid strength. In Chapter 20 (Electrochemistry), we have made some changes in notation that are recommended by IUPAC. Most importantly, we introduce the concept of electron number, z, and use it in place of n in the Nernst equation and other equations. Chapter 21 (Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements I: Groups 1, 2, 13, and 14); and Chapter 22 (Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements II: Groups 18, 17, 16, 15, and Hydrogen) have been updated to include discussion of interesting and important materials, such as crown ether complexes, zeolites, and graphene. In Chapter 21, we introduce the concept of charge density and use it throughout these two chapters to rationalize similarities and differences in properties of elements. We have devoted two chapters to organic chemistry. Chapter 26 (Structures of Organic Compounds) focuses on the structures, conformations, preparation, and uses of organic compounds. Chapter 27 (Reactions of Organic Compounds) focuses on a few important types of reactions and their mechanisms. In examining these reactions, emphasis is placed on concepts introduced earlier in the text, such as acid or base strength, electronegativity, and polarizability. In Appendix D, we have added the molar heat capacity for each of the substances listed in Table D.2 (Therm

Evolving Nature Of Objectivity In The History Of Science And Its Implications For Science Education

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319677268
Size: 53.55 MB
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This book explores the evolving nature of objectivity in the history of science and its implications for science education. It is generally considered that objectivity, certainty, truth, universality, the scientific method and the accumulation of experimental data characterize both science and science education. Such universal values associated with science may be challenged while studying controversies in their original historical context. The scientific enterprise is not characterized by objectivity or the scientific method, but rather controversies, alternative interpretations of data, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Although objectivity is not synonymous with truth or certainty, it has eclipsed other epistemic virtues and to be objective is often used as a synonym for scientific. Recent scholarship in history and philosophy of science has shown that it is not the experimental data (Baconian orgy of quantification) but rather the diversity / plurality in a scientific discipline that contributes toward understanding objectivity. History of science shows that objectivity and subjectivity can be considered as the two poles of a continuum and this dualism leads to a conflict in understanding the evolving nature of objectivity. The history of objectivity is nothing less than the history of science itself and the evolving and varying forms of objectivity does not mean that one replaced the other in a sequence but rather each form supplements the others. This book is remarkable for its insistence that the philosophy of science, and in particular that discipline’s analysis of objectivity as the supposed hallmark of the scientific method, is of direct value to teachers of science. Meticulously, yet in a most readable way, Mansoor Niaz looks at the way objectivity has been dealt with over the years in influential educational journals and in textbooks; it’s fascinating how certain perspectives fade, while basic questions show no sign of going away. There are few books that take both philosophy and education seriously – this one does! Roald Hoffmann, Cornell University, chemist, writer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry

Introduction To General Organic And Biochemistry 10th Edition

Author: Morris Hein
Publisher: Wiley Global Education
ISBN: 1118136942
Size: 41.58 MB
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Intended for use in the two-term, freshman-level General, Organic, and Biochemistry course taken by Allied Health students, the Tenth Edition of this widely adopted text includes improved explanations, updated materials, cutting-edge developments, emerging technologies, and revisions to the popular Chemistry in Action sections. Hein, Pattison, Best, and Arena is a market-proven text that provides the most comprehensive coverage of general, organic, and biochemistry available at this level. Experienced authors, Hein, Pattison, Best, and Arena, recognize that both science and mathematics can be daunting subjects to students. They skillfully anticipate areas of difficulty and pace the text accordingly. Particular emphasis is placed on the understanding of how chemical principles relate to their lives and future careers. The authors focus on problem solving over rote memorization and provide a variety of exercises to aid in the development of this essential skill. While the authors have revised and updated sections on inorganic and organic chemistry throughout the text, they particularly focused on incorporating many of the recent developments in biochemistry.

Chemistry And Physics For Nurse Anesthesia

Author: Dr. David Shubert, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826118455
Size: 72.95 MB
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"[A] welcome addition to the reference materials necessary for the study of nurse anesthesia....The textbook is divided into logical, easy to use sections that cover all areas necessary for the practice of nurse anesthesia....This is a text that is easy to read and able to be incorporated into any nurse anesthesia chemistry and physics course. I would recommend this textbook to any program director." --Anthony Chipas, PhD, CRNA Division Director Anesthesia for Nurses Program Medical University of South Carolina At last. . . a combined chemistry & physics nursing anesthesia text. This textbook offers combined coverage of chemistry and physics to help students learn the content needed to master the underlying principles of nursing anesthesia. Because many graduate nursing students are uncomfortable with chemistry and physics, this text presents only the specific content in chemistry and physics that relates to anesthesia. Written in a conversational, accessible style, the book teaches at a highly understandable level, so as to bridge the gap between what students recall from their undergraduate biochemistry and physics courses, and what they need to know as nurse anesthetists. The book contains many illustrations that demonstrate how the scientific concepts relate directly to clinical application in anesthesia. Chapters cover key topics relating to anesthesiology, including the basics of both chemistry and physics, fluids, a concentration on gas laws, states of matter, acids and bases, electrical circuits, radiation, and radioactivity. With this text, students will benefit from: A review of the math, chemistry, and physics basics that relate to clinical anesthesia A conversational presentation of just what students need to know, enabling a fast and complete mastery of clinically relevant scientific concepts Heavy use of illustrations throughout chapters to complement the text End-of-chapter review questions that help students assess their learning PowerPoint Slides available to qualified instructors.

Organische Chemie

Author: Kurt Peter C. Vollhardt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527327541
Size: 58.78 MB
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Besser Konzepte und Ideen der organischen Chemie verstehen, als eine Vielzahl von Fakten auswendig beherrschen! Diesem Motto bleibt der "Vollhardt/Schore" auch in der neuesten Auflage treu. Das neu gestaltete Layout, beispielhaft gelöste Übungsaufgaben und die deutlich erweiterten Verständnisübungen führen einprägsam an die Methodik zur Lösung organisch-chemischer Probleme heran. So werden nicht nur die stofflichen Grundlagen der organischen Chemie, sondern auch das "Gewusst wie" fast schon spielerisch vermittelt. Nicht nur für Chemiestudenten, auch für Biochemiker, Pharmazeuten, Biologen und Mediziner ist der "Vollhardt/Schore" der fachliche Grundstock für die organische Chemie.