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Ionomers

Author: M.R. Tant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940091461X
Size: 72.60 MB
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Polymers have achieved an enviable position as the class of materials having the highest volume of production, exceeding that of both metals and ceramics. The meteoric rise in the production and utilization of polymers has been due to advances in polymer synthesis which allow the creation of specific and well-defined molecular structures, to new knowledge concerning the relationships between polymer structure and properties, and to an improved understanding of how processing can be used as a tool to develop morphological features which result in desired properties. Polymers have truly become 'engineered materials' in every sense of the term. Polymer scientists and engineers are forever seeking to modify and improve the properties of synthetic polymeric systems for use in specific applications. Towards this end they have often looked to nature for advice on how to design molecules for specific needs. An excellent illustration of this is the use of noncovalent bonding (ionic, hydrogen, and van der Waals) in lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, where these noncovalent bonds, acting both intra and intermolecularly, precisely control the structure and thus the function of the entire system. The utilization of ionic bonding, in particular in man-made polymers has attracted widespread interest in recent years, since ionic interactions exert a similar strong influence on the structure and properties of these synthetic systems.

Well Architectured Fluoropolymers Synthesis Properties And Applications

Author: Bruno Ameduri
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080474823
Size: 14.86 MB
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Because of the increasing need for ever better performing materials endowed with specific properties, macromolecular engineering has become a useful tool for designing well-architectured polymers (telomers, telechelics, stars, dendrimers, alternating, block- and graftcopolymers). These polymers are nowadays seeing an enormous growth. Among them, fluoropolymers are seen as high value added materials in many applications ranging from surfactants, optical fibers, biomaterials, coatings, to membranes for fuel cells. Indeed, the relationship between structure of the monomer to the properties of the polymers is of increasing interest so that these properties are tuned for the most appropriate applications. As most fluoropolymers are prepared from radical synthesis, this book devotes various parts on the use of the controlled radical (or pseudo-living) polymerisation of fluoromonomers leading to discoveries of thermoplastic elastomers or original surfactants for polymerisation in supercritical CO2. Well-Architectured Fluoropolymers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications is composed of five chapters starting with a general introduction outlining basic concepts. Emphasis is placed on recent developments, and each chapter describes comprehensive techniques of synthesis of well-defined fluorotelomers or polymers, their properties, characterisations, and their applications, for immediate use by today’s engineers, industrial and academic scientists, and researchers. The book has been arranged to enable self-managed reading and learning. It is both a source of data and a reference. On the synthesis, properties and applications of fluoropolymers: remarkable, high value added materials applied in surfactants, optical fibres, biomaterials, coatings and membranes for fuel cells For immediate use by today's engineers, industrial and academic scientists, and researchers Written to enable self-managed reading and learning, being both a source of data and a reference

Self Healing Materials

Author: Sybrand van der Zwaag
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402062508
Size: 45.72 MB
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This book, the first published in this new sub-field of materials science, presents a coherent picture of the design principles and resulting properties of self-healing materials over all material classes, and offsets them to the current design principles for structural materials with improved mechanical properties. The book is not only a valuable asset for professional materials scientists but it is also suitable as a text book for courses at MSc level.

Novel Approaches To The Structure And Dynamics Of Liquids Experiments Theories And Simulations

Author: Jannis Samios
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402023847
Size: 46.82 MB
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The unique behavior of the "liquid state", together with the richness of phenomena that are observed, render liquids particularly interesting for the scientific community. Note that the most important reactions in chemical and biological systems take place in solutions and liquid-like environments. Additionally, liquids are utilized for numerous industrial applications. It is for these reasons that the understanding of their properties at the molecular level is of foremost interest in many fields of science and engineering. What can be said with certainty is that both the experimental and theoretical studies of the liquid state have a long and rich history, so that one might suppose this to be essentially a solved problem. It should be emphasized, however, that although, for more than a century, the overall scientific effort has led to a considerable progress, our understanding of the properties of the liquid systems is still incomplete and there is still more to be explored. Basic reason for this is the "many body" character of the particle interactions in liquids and the lack of long-range order, which introduce in liquid state theory and existing simulation techniques a number of conceptual and technical problems that require specific approaches. Also, many of the elementary processes that take place in liquids, including molecular translational, rotational and vibrational motions (Trans. -Rot. -Vib. coupling), structural relaxation, energy dissipation and especially chemical changes in reactive systems occur at different and/or extremely short timescales.

Linear Polyurethanes

Author: Piotr Król
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9004161244
Size: 28.44 MB
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This volume describes in detail the mechanisms of the diisocyanates and polyols polyaddition process as well as its kinetic and process aspects important for obtaining linear polyurethanes. General kinetics of the process and its experimental verification, using GPC chromatography as well as NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-ToF spectrometry, are presented. Accompanied by over 400 references, the author presents synthesis methods, physicochemical properties of linear polyurethanes (analyzed with DCS, TG, DMTA, Rtg, AFM microscopy methods) as semiproducts for foams, elastomers, lacquers and coatings. Research results concerning free surface energy of the polyurethane coatings are also presented. Special attention is given to the latest polyurethane applications, such as ecological waterborne dispersions, biodegradation resistant elastomers and coatings used as medical implants and binders for ceramic powder materials. Moreover, the book contains information on urethane-isocyanate prepolymers applications, which are potential semifinished products for elastomers, foams, coatings, adhesives and interpenetrating polymer network composites.

Handbook Of Engineering And Specialty Thermoplastics Polyolefins And Styrenics

Author: Johannes Karl Fink
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118029282
Size: 65.25 MB
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Utilizes an encyclopedic approach to cover the developments in polyolefins and styrenics during the last decade This book focuses on common types of polymers belonging to the class of polyolefins and styrenics. The text is arranged according to the chemical constitution of polymers and reviews the developments that have taken place in the last decade. A brief introduction to the polymer type is given and previous monographs and reviews dealing with the topic are listed for quick reference. The text continues with monomers, polymerization, fabrication techniques, properties, application, as well as safety issues. Providing a rather encyclopedic approach to polyolefins and styrenics, The Handbook of Engineering and Specialty Thermoplastics: Presents a listing of suppliers and commercial grades Reviews current patent literature, essential for the engineer developing new products Contains as extensive tradenames index with information that is fairly unique Concludes with an index of acronyms The Handbook of Engineering and Specialty Thermoplastics: Polyolefins and Styrenics provides a comprehensive reference for chemical engineers and offers advanced students with a textbook for use in courses on chemically biased plastics technology and polymer science.

Fluorinated Ionomers

Author: Walther Grot
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437744575
Size: 57.73 MB
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Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world's highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The use of fluorinated ionomers such as Nafion� have removed the need for mercury and asbestos in these processes and led to a massive reduction in electricity usage in these highly energy-intensive processes. Polymers in this group have also found uses in fuel-cells, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, drug release technologies, gas drying and humidification, and super-acid catalysis used in the production of specialty chemicals. Walther Grot, who invented Nafion� while working for DuPont, has written this book as a practical guide to engineers and scientists working in electrochemistry, the fuel cell industry and other areas of application. His book is a unique guide to this important polymer group and its applications, in membranes and other forms. The 2e expands this handbook by over a third, with new sections covering developments in electrolysis and membranes, additional information about the synthesis and science of the polymer group, and an enhanced provision of reference data. An essential reference for scientists working with electrolysis and electrochemical processes (the use of this polymer group in industrial chemistry processes is credited with a 1% reduction in global electricity usage) Covers the techniques involved in the growing range of applications for fluorinated ionomers, including fuel cells, batteries and drug delivery The only book on this important polymer group, written by Walther Grot, the inventor of the leading fluorinated ionomer, Nafion� from DuPont

Introduction To Ionomers

Author: Adi Eisenberg
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471246787
Size: 51.68 MB
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A practical introduction to one of today's most exciting and rapidly growing areas of polymer science. Introduction to Ionomers affords chemists, engineers, and graduate students an opportunity to familiarize themselves quickly and thoroughly with one of today's most commercially important classes of polymers. Featuring a balanced, fully integrated presentation of basic science and state-of-the-art applications, the book provides the depth of knowledge researchers need to make optimal use of established ionomeric processes or to develop new systems of their own. The book's primary conceptual thrust is the relationship between polymeric architecture and polymeric morphology and properties when affected by ionic groups. While it provides in-depth coverage of all common classes of ionomeric materials--including polystyrenes, polyethylenes, polyurethanes, and polyacrylics--non-crystalline materials are emphasized over partly-crystalline materials. Co-author Adi Eisenberg, a leading ionomer pioneer and innovator, provides a uniquely intimate historical perspective on the field as it has developed over the past three decades. Newcomers to ionomers will appreciate the authors' clear and methodical presentations of difficult concepts, designed to promote rapid mastery of the core principles involved. The product of an exhaustive survey of the huge and rapidly growing world literature on the subject, Introduction to Ionomers is also an excellent resource for experienced professionals attempting to stay abreast of important recent developments in the field.