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Iran And The Global Economy

Author: Parvin Alizadeh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317963016
Size: 11.53 MB
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The relationship between religion and the state has entered a new phase ever since the Iranian Revolution more than three decades ago. The recent mass uprisings against autocratic rulers in the Arab world have highlighted the potency of Islamist forces in post-revolutionary societies in the region, a force arguably unlocked first by Iran’s version of the ‘spring’ three decades ago. The economic ramifications of these uprisings are of special interest at a time when the possibility of the creation of Islamic states can have implications for their economic policy and performance again. A study of the Iranian experience in itself can offer rare insights whether for its own features and characteristics or for its possible lessons and implications for recent events in the region. This book is concerned with the economic aspects and consequences of the Iranian Revolution in general and its interaction with the international economy in particular. Many studies have to date dealt with Iran’s economic challenges, policies and performance in the post-revolutionary period but its interaction with the international economy – although of growing importance – has not received sufficient attention. The contributions in this volume by experts in the field address ways in which in the span of three decades, Iran’s economy has evolved from a strong aspiration to develop an ‘independent economy’ to grappling with debilitating international economic sanctions.

State Business Alliances And Economic Development

Author: I??k Özel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317817818
Size: 14.48 MB
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This book argues that a key dynamic behind economic development in the emerging markets is the coordination between the state and businesses. Exploring the links between institutions, state--business alliances and economic development in the context of tumultuous market transitions since the 1980s, the book tackles the formation and sustainability of coordination-inducing institutions besides their mere existence, and points out the new modalities of coordination in the age of new developmentalism. Based on extensive original research in Turkey and Mexico embedded in a comparative historical analysis, the book shows how state--business alliances have been formed, collapsed and re-formed between the respective states and shifting business actors since the launching of market transitions. It demonstrates how both the state and business actors, and their cohesiveness vs. fragmentation, play crucial roles in the making and sustainability of the institutions, which are central to state--business alliances. It explores the emergence of new actors, the diversification of the organizational landscape, and the evolution of the ways in which the states interact with businesses throughout major economic and political transformations that helped transform the respective states and their interactions with the non-state actors. It draws on the meandering developmental trajectories of Turkey and Mexico from the 1970s to the present and goes on to draw some lessons for institution-building and market reforms in selected countries in North Africa.

Women And Politics In Iran

Author: Hamideh Sedghi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463721
Size: 50.22 MB
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Why were urban women veiled in the early 1900s, unveiled from 1936 to 1979, and reveiled after the 1979 revolution? This question forms the basis of Hamideh Sedghi's original and unprecedented contribution to politics and Middle Eastern studies. Using primary and secondary sources, Sedghi offers new knowledge on women's agency in relation to state power. In this rigorous analysis she places contention over women at the centre of the political struggle between secular and religious forces and demonstrates that control over women's identities, sexuality, and labor has been central to the consolidation of state power. Sedghi links politics and culture with economics to present an integrated analysis of the private and public lives of different classes of women and their modes of resistance to state power.

Iran S Political Demographic And Economic Vulnerabilities

Author: Keith Crane
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833043048
Size: 76.89 MB
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Iran is one of the most important U.S. foreign policy concerns but is extraordinarily difficult to engage. The authors assess current political, ethnic, demographic, and economic trends and vulnerabilities in Iran, then offer recommendations on U.S. policies that might foster the trends beneficial to U.S. interests. However, if these trends do take root in Iran, seeing them come to fruition will take time and, therefore, patience.

Radical Islam In East Africa

Author: Angel Rabasa
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833046799
Size: 59.83 MB
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American geopolitical interests and the potential threats to those interests are both on the rise in East Africa. The author places the spread of militant Islamism and the development of radical Islamist networks in East Africa in the broader context of the social, economic, and political factors that have shaped the region's security environment.

Economic Performance In The Middle East And North Africa

Author: Serdar Sayan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134072201
Size: 57.14 MB
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The economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are in dire need of substantial institutional reform to improve their growth performance so as to create enough jobs for millions of entrants into their respective job markets, and to fight poverty and income inequality. This is necessary not only to reduce the risk of social unrest and domestic/regional conflicts, but also to assure stability of energy supply to the rest of the world and to hamper the violence originating from the region. So, the region's convergence to global standards of governance quality is desirable for increased prosperity and stability both in the region and outside. This volume contributes to the recently burgeoning political economy literature on institutions by putting together well-written chapters that empirically study the relationship between economic performance and institutional characteristics in MENA economies to point out some of the areas where institutional reform is particularly needed and possible tools to use for such reform. Perhaps one common lesson that can be derived from all chapters in the volume is that the both the region itself and the global economy will benefit from a MENA region that is better integrated to the rest.

The International Politics Of The Middle East

Author: Raymond Hinnebusch
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 1847795226
Size: 23.62 MB
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This text aims to fill a gap in the field of middle eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It should be of benefit to students of middle eastern politics, international relations and comparative politics. The book begins with an overview of the rules and features of the middle east regional system - the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. It goes on to analyse foreign policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, the book goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

Protest And Mass Mobilization

Author: Merouan Mekouar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131707422X
Size: 46.72 MB
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Why and how do some acts of protest trigger mass mobilization while others do not? Using the cases of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, Mekouar argues that successful mass mobilization is the result of a surprise factor, whose impact and exceptionality is amplified by the presence of influential political agents during the early phase of protest, as well as by regime violence and unusual media coverage. Together this study argues that these factors create a perception of exceptionality, which breaks the locally available cognitive heuristic originally in favor of the regime, and thus creates the necessary conditions for mobilization to occur. This book provides a unique dialectical picture of mobilization in North Africa by focusing both on the perspective of those who mobilized against their local regimes and members of the security forces who were responsible for stopping them. Moreover, it offers a first-hand account of the tumultuous days preceding authoritarian collapse and explains the mechanisms through which political change occurs.

Economic And Trade Policies In The Arab World

Author: Mahmoud A.T. Elkhafif
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136324267
Size: 15.81 MB
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The Arab Spring and recent popular uprisings that have taken place in many Arab countries since the end of 2010 highlight the urgent need for economic policy reorientation in these countries. This book addresses key issues relevant to the contemporary economic realities of the Arab economies; including policy space, generation of more productive and decent employment, social justice and poverty alleviation, regional integration and the common destiny of the Arab people, and the failure of the structural adjustment programs recommended by the Bretton Woods institutions and implemented in these countries in the last three decades. The volume explores, and makes recommendations, for deep pan Arab regional integration and alternative pro-poor, growth-oriented economic and trade policies capable of promoting social justice by reducing the incidence of poverty. It highlights the ways in which various types of economic and trade policies have affected the levels of employment and poverty in five Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, the occupied Palestinian territory and Sudan. Using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the book focuses on Arab trade integration, exploring the obstacles to its implementation in the past, as well as its potentials as a source of employment generation and enhancement of living conditions. The book also addresses the construction, interpretation and use of quantitative trade indicators for optimal policy choice at both the domestic and regional levels.