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Isotope Geochemistry

Author: William M. White
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470656700
Size: 13.72 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview of nuclear physics and nuclear origins, it then reviews radioactive decay schemes and their use in geochronology. A following chapter covers the closely related techniques such as fission-track and carbon-14 dating. Subsequent chapters cover nucleosynthetic anomalies in meteorites and early solar system chronology and the use of radiogenic isotopes in understanding the evolution of the Earth's mantle, crust, and oceans. Attention then turns to stable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved, the book explores their use in topics as diverse as mantle evolution, archeology and paleontology, ore formation, and, particularly, paleoclimatology. A following chapter explores recent developments including unconventional stable isotopes, mass-independent fractionation, and isotopic 'clumping'. The final chapter reviews the isotopic variation in the noble gases, which result from both radioactive decay and chemical fractionations.

Minerale Und Gesteine

Author: Gregor Markl
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662446286
Size: 44.48 MB
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Das bewährte Lehrbuch der Mineralogie Gregor Markls Buch ist eine verständliche Einführung in die Grundlagen der Mineralogie, Petrologie und Geochemie und richtet sich vor allem an Studierende geowissenschaftlicher Fächer. Am Anfang steht eine reich bebilderte Beschreibung der wichtigsten Minerale und Gesteine. Dann stellt der Autor Konzepte und Analysemethoden der Mineralogie vor und erklärt die Bildung und Veränderungen von metamorphen, magmatischen und sedimentären Gesteinen. Das Kapitel zur Geochemie beleuchtet die Chemie des Kosmos, die Entstehung der Elemente, Meteorite sowie die Zusammensetzung der wichtigsten globalen Reservoire (Erdkern, -mantel, -kruste, Ozeane, Atmosphäre). Eine wichtige Anwendung der Geochemie ist die Messung von Gehalten an Spurenelementen oder stabilen und radiogenen Isotopen in Gesteinen zur Rekonstruktion geologischer Prozesse. Das Lehrbuch besticht durch moderne Stoffauswahl und -darstellung, übersichtlich strukturierte und verständliche Texte, die gelungene Verbindung von Mineralogie, Petrologie und Geochemie sowie die große Zahl farbiger Fotos und instruktiver zweifarbiger Grafiken. Studierenden der Geowissenschaften wird dieses Buch vom Grundstudium bis zum Bachelorabschluss begleiten. Zugleich bietet es allen, die sich für die Erde interessieren, spannende Einblicke in die Wissenschaft von den Mineralen und Gesteinen.

Isotopes

Author: Gunter Faure
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 68.63 MB
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The leading textbook and professional resource on isotope geochemistry–completely updated and expanded Since its initial publication as Principles of Isotope Geology in 1977, this has been the most widely used comprehensive textbook in upper-level isotope geochemistry courses. Now in its Third Edition, Isotopes: Principles and Applications has been thoroughly updated, rewritten, reorganized, and expanded to include more than twice the content of its predecessor. Covering radiogenic, radioactive, and stable isotopes, this volume consists of five units that present fundamentals of atomic physics; dating methods for terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks by means of radiogenic isotopes; geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; dating by means of U, Th-series and cosmogenic radionuclides; and the fractionation of the stable isotopes of H, C, N, O, and S, as well as Li, B, Si, and Cl. Additionally, this edition provides: Expanded coverage of the U-Pb methods –the most accurate available dating technique Applications to the petrogenesis of igneous rocks Summaries of the use of isotopic data for study of the oceans New examples from the fields of archeology and anthropology Radiation-damage methods of dating including fission tracks, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance (ESR) Information on the dispersal of fission-product radionuclides and the disposal of radioactive waste Extensive chapter-by-chapter problems and solutions Supplemented with summaries and references in each chapter, as well as more than 450 drawings and 100 tables, this volume remains the leading resource in isotope geoscience. Broad applications in many other areas –including geochemistry, geology, meteoritics, physics, chemistry, and biology –make it indispensable throughout the natural sciences.

Lectures In Isotope Geology

Author: E. Jäger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642671616
Size: 56.95 MB
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Our colleagues from the French-speaking parts of Switzerland - the Suisses romands - and above all the committee of the 3rd Cycle, e Earth Sciences (3 Cycle, Sciences de la Terre) honored us by asking us to give a course on Isotope Geology for the year 1977. The course, entitled Evaluation et Interpretation des Donnees Isotopiques (eval uation and Interpretation of Isotopic Data), was intended to inform earth scientists, graduate and postgraduate, from the western Swiss Universities on the subject of Isotope Geology. Such courses usually consist of two parts: lectures and excursions. Thus, in March 1977, we gave such a two-week course at the Miner alogical Institute of the University of Berne. The first week was devoted essentially to the methods of dating, the second week to the behavior of stable isotopes. In July 1977, on the occasion of an excursion to the Central and Western Alps, we were able to demonstrate our results. Guest professors were invited to make contributions to the course.

Introduction To Geochemistry

Author: Kula C. Misra
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444347195
Size: 25.73 MB
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This book is intended to serve as a text for an introductory course in geochemistry for undergraduate/graduate students with at least an elementary–level background in earth sciences, chemistry, and mathematics. The text, containing 83 tables and 181 figures, covers a wide variety of topics — ranging from atomic structure to chemical and isotopic equilibria to modern biogeochemical cycles — which are divided into four interrelated parts: Crystal Chemistry; Chemical Reactions (and biochemical reactions involving bacteria); Isotope Geochemistry (radiogenic and stable isotopes); and The Earth Supersystem, which includes discussions pertinent to the evolution of the solid Earth, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere. In keeping with the modern trend in the field of geochemistry, the book emphasizes computational techniques by developing appropriate mathematical relations, solving a variety of problems to illustrate application of the mathematical relations, and leaving a set of questions at the end of each chapter to be solved by students. However, so as not to interrupt the flow of the text, involved chemical concepts and mathematical derivations are separated in the form of boxes. Supplementary materials are packaged into ten appendixes that include a standard–state (298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic data table and a listing of answers to selected chapter–end questions. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/misra/geochemistry.

Frontiers In Geochemistry

Author: Russell Harmon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444329979
Size: 35.32 MB
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This book is a contribution to the International Year of Planet Earth arising from the 33rd International Geological Congress, held in Oslo, Norway during August 2008. The first section of the book considers aspects of geochemical processes which led to the development of the solid Earth as it is today. The second portion of the book shows how the rapidly-evolving analytical tools and approaches presently used by geochemists may be used to solve emerging environmental and other societal problems. This unique collection of reviews, with contributions from a range of internationally distinguished scientists, will be invaluable reading for advanced students and others interested in the central role geochemistry in the earth sciences.

Encyclopedia Of Ecology

Author: Brian D. Fath
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444641300
Size: 32.75 MB
Format: PDF
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Encyclopedia of Ecology, Second Edition continues the acclaimed work of the previous edition published in 2008. It covers all scales of biological organization, from organisms, to populations, to communities and ecosystems. Laboratory, field, simulation modelling, and theoretical approaches are presented to show how living systems sustain structure and function in space and time. New areas of focus include micro- and macro scales, molecular and genetic ecology, and global ecology (e.g., climate change, earth transformations, ecosystem services, and the food-water-energy nexus) are included. In addition, new, international experts in ecology contribute on a variety of topics. Offers the most broad-ranging and comprehensive resource available in the field of ecology Provides foundational content and suggests further reading Incorporates the expertise of over 500 outstanding investigators in the field of ecology, including top young scientists with both research and teaching experience Includes multimedia resources, such as an Interactive Map Viewer and links to a CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System), an open-source platform for modelers to share and link models dealing with earth system processes

Isotopic Analysis

Author: Frank Vanhaecke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527650504
Size: 55.39 MB
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Edited by two very well-known and respected scientists in the field, this excellent practical guide is the first to cover the fundamentals and a wide range of applications, as well as showing readers how to efficiently use this increasingly important technique. From the contents: * The Isotopic Composition of the Elements * Single-Collector ICP-MS * Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Advances in Laser Ablation - Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Correction for Instrumental Mass Discrimination in Isotope Ratio Determination with Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Reference Materials in Isotopic Analysis * Quality Control in Isotope Ratio Applications * Determination of Trace Elements and Elemental Species Using Isotope Dilution ICP-MS * Geochronological Dating * Application of Multi-Collector ICP-MS to Isotopic Analysis in Cosmochemistry * Establishing the Basis for Using Stable Isotope Ratios of Metals as Paleoredox Proxies * Isotopes as Tracers of Elements Across the Geosphere-Biosphere Interface * Archaeometric Applications * Forensics Applications * Nuclear Applications * The Use of Stable Isotope Techniques for Studying Mineral and Trace Element Metabolism in Humans * Isotopic Analysis via Multi-Collector ICP-MS in Elemental Speciation A must-have for newcomers as well as established scientists seeking an overview of isotopic analysis via ICP-MS.

Geochronology And Thermochronology

Author: Peter W. Reiners
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118455908
Size: 22.86 MB
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This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on the current state-of-the art in most of the principal areas of geochronology and thermochronology, while recognizing that they are changing at a fast pace. It emphasizes fundamentals and systematics, historical perspective, analytical methods, data interpretation, and some applications chosen from the literature. This book complements existing coverage by expanding on those parts of isotope geochemistry that are concerned with dates and rates and insights into Earth and planetary science that come from temporal perspectives. Geochronology and Thermochronology offers chapters covering: Foundations of Radioisotopic Dating; Analytical Methods; Interpretational Approaches: Making Sense of Data; Diffusion and Thermochronologic Interpretations; Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf; Re-Os and Pt-Os; U-Th-Pb Geochronology and Thermochronology; The K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Systems; Radiation-damage Methods of Geo- and Thermochronology; The (U-Th)/He System; Uranium-series Geochronology; Cosmogenic Nuclides; and Extinct Radionuclide Chronology. Offers a foundation for understanding each of the methods and for illuminating directions that will be important in the near future Presents the fundamentals, perspectives, and opportunities in modern geochronology in a way that inspires further innovation, creative technique development, and applications Provides references to rapidly evolving topics that will enable readers to pursue future developments Geochronology and Thermochronology is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students with a solid background in mathematics, geochemistry, and geology.