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Isotope Geochemistry

Author: William M. White
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470656700
Size: 36.53 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview of nuclear physics and nuclear origins, it then reviews radioactive decay schemes and their use in geochronology. A following chapter covers the closely related techniques such as fission-track and carbon-14 dating. Subsequent chapters cover nucleosynthetic anomalies in meteorites and early solar system chronology and the use of radiogenic isotopes in understanding the evolution of the Earth's mantle, crust, and oceans. Attention then turns to stable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved, the book explores their use in topics as diverse as mantle evolution, archeology and paleontology, ore formation, and, particularly, paleoclimatology. A following chapter explores recent developments including unconventional stable isotopes, mass-independent fractionation, and isotopic 'clumping'. The final chapter reviews the isotopic variation in the noble gases, which result from both radioactive decay and chemical fractionations.

Geochronology And Thermochronology

Author: Peter W. Reiners
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118455908
Size: 55.97 MB
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This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on the current state-of-the art in most of the principal areas of geochronology and thermochronology, while recognizing that they are changing at a fast pace. It emphasizes fundamentals and systematics, historical perspective, analytical methods, data interpretation, and some applications chosen from the literature. This book complements existing coverage by expanding on those parts of isotope geochemistry that are concerned with dates and rates and insights into Earth and planetary science that come from temporal perspectives. Geochronology and Thermochronology offers chapters covering: Foundations of Radioisotopic Dating; Analytical Methods; Interpretational Approaches: Making Sense of Data; Diffusion and Thermochronologic Interpretations; Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf; Re-Os and Pt-Os; U-Th-Pb Geochronology and Thermochronology; The K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Systems; Radiation-damage Methods of Geo- and Thermochronology; The (U-Th)/He System; Uranium-series Geochronology; Cosmogenic Nuclides; and Extinct Radionuclide Chronology. Offers a foundation for understanding each of the methods and for illuminating directions that will be important in the near future Presents the fundamentals, perspectives, and opportunities in modern geochronology in a way that inspires further innovation, creative technique development, and applications Provides references to rapidly evolving topics that will enable readers to pursue future developments Geochronology and Thermochronology is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students with a solid background in mathematics, geochemistry, and geology.

Stable Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Jochen Hoefs
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319197169
Size: 23.89 MB
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Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an introduction to the use of stable isotopes in the geosciences. For students and scientists alike the book will be a primary source of information with regard to how and where stable isotopes can be used to solve geological problems. It is subdivided into three parts: i) theoretical and experimental principles, ii) fractionation processes of light and heavy elements, iii) the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. In the last decade, major advances in multicollector-ICP-mass-spectrometry enable the precise determination of a wide range of transition and heavy elements. Progress in analysing the rare isotopes of certain elements allows the distinction between mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations. These major advances in analytical techniques make an extended new edition necessary. Special emphasis has been given to the growing field of “non-traditional” isotope systems. Many new references have been added, which will enable quick access to recent literature.

Principles Of Stable Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Zachary Sharp
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN:
Size: 71.23 MB
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This is the first dedicated book to cover the basics of a wide range of stable isotope applications in a manner appropriate for someone entering the field. At the same time, it offers sufficient detail and numerous references and examples to direct research for further inquiry.Discusses diverse topics such as hydrology, carbon in plants, meteorites, carbonates, metamorphic rocks, etc. Explores the theory and principles of isotope fractionation. Offers unique, up-to-date discussion of meteorite (extraterrestrial) isotope data. Presents the subject in an interesting historical context, with the classic papers noted.A useful reference for students taking the course and professionals entering the field of Geochemistry.

Radiogenic Isotope Geology

Author: Alan P. Dickin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108548164
Size: 35.20 MB
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The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.

Geochemistry

Author: William M. White
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118485270
Size: 39.91 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of geochemistry. The book first lays out the ‘geochemical toolbox’: the basic principles and techniques of modern geochemistry, beginning with a review of thermodynamics and kinetics as they apply to the Earth and its environs. These basic concepts are then applied to understanding processes in aqueous systems and the behavior of trace elements in magmatic systems. Subsequent chapters introduce radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry and illustrate their application to such diverse topics as determining geologic time, ancient climates, and the diets of prehistoric peoples. The focus then broadens to the formation of the solar system, the Earth, and the elements themselves. Then the composition of the Earth itself becomes the topic, examining the composition of the core, the mantle, and the crust and exploring how this structure originated. A final chapter covers organic chemistry, including the origin of fossil fuels and the carbon cycle’s role in controlling Earth’s climate, both in the geologic past and the rapidly changing present. Geochemistry is essential reading for all earth science students, as well as for researchers and applied scientists who require an introduction to the essential theory of geochemistry, and a survey of its applications in the earth and environmental sciences. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/white/geochemistry

Environmental And Low Temperature Geochemistry

Author: Peter Ryan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118867491
Size: 37.62 MB
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Environmental and Low-Temperature Geochemistry presents conceptual and quantitative principles of geochemistry in order to foster understanding of natural processes at and near the earth’s surface, as well as anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment. It provides the reader with the essentials of concentration, speciation and reactivity of elements in soils, waters, sediments and air, drawing attention to both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Specific features include: • An introductory chapter that reviews basic chemical principles applied to environmental and low-temperature geochemistry • Explanation and analysis of the importance of minerals in the environment • Principles of aqueous geochemistry • Organic compounds in the environment • The role of microbes in processes such as biomineralization, elemental speciation and reduction-oxidation reactions • Thorough coverage of the fundamentals of important geochemical cycles (C, N, P, S) • Atmospheric chemistry • Soil geochemistry • The roles of stable isotopes in environmental analysis • Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes as environmental tracers and environmental contaminants • Principles and examples of instrumental analysis in environmental geochemistry The text concludes with a case study of surface water and groundwater contamination that includes interactions and reactions of naturally-derived inorganic substances and introduced organic compounds (fuels and solvents), and illustrates the importance of interdisciplinary analysis in environmental geochemistry. Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying environmental/low T geochemistry as part of an earth science, environmental science or related program. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/ryan/geochemistry.

Geochemical And Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling

Author: Craig M. Bethke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139468324
Size: 55.98 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of reaction processes in the Earth's crust and on its surface, both in the laboratory and in the field. A clear exposition of the underlying equations and calculation techniques is balanced by a large number of fully worked examples. The book uses The Geochemist's Workbench® modeling software, developed by the author and already installed at over 1000 universities and research facilities worldwide. Since publication of the first edition, the field of reaction modeling has continued to grow and find increasingly broad application. In particular, the description of microbial activity, surface chemistry, and redox chemistry within reaction models has become broader and more rigorous. These areas are covered in detail in this new edition, which was originally published in 2007. This text is written for graduate students and academic researchers in the fields of geochemistry, environmental engineering, contaminant hydrology, geomicrobiology, and numerical modeling.

Principles Of Isotope Geology

Author: Gunter Faure
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN:
Size: 19.88 MB
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This wide-ranging text in isotope geology/geoscience allows students to integrate material taught in various courses into a unified picture of the earth sciences. Gives a rational exposition of the principles used in the interpretation of isotopic data and shows how such interpretations apply to the solution of geological problems. Current with references up to 1985, chapters in this edition have been revised, and new chapters on Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, Re-Os, and K-Ca decay schemes and cosmogenic radionuclides have been added. Data summaries and references have been expanded. Also includes problems for student study and abundant line drawings with explanatory captions.