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Japan And Civil Jury Trials

Author: Matthew J. Wilson
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1783479191
Size: 35.49 MB
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With effective solutions in both criminal and civil disputes at a premium, reformers have advanced varied forms of jury systems as a means of fostering positive political, economic, and social change. Many countries have recently integrated lay partici

Juries In The Japanese Legal System

Author: Dimitri Vanoverbeke
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317487346
Size: 53.12 MB
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Trial by jury is not a fundamental part of the Japanese legal system, but there has been a recent important move towards this with the introduction in 2009 of the lay assessor system whereby lay people sit with judges in criminal trials. This book considers the debates in Japan which surround this development. It examines the political and socio-legal contexts, contrasting the view that the participation of ordinary citizens in criminal trials is an important manifestation of democracy, with the view that Japan as a society where authority is highly venerated is not natural territory for a system where lay people are likely to express views at odds with expert judges. It discusses Japan’s earlier experiments with jury trials in the late 19th Century, the period 1923-43, and up to 1970 in US-controlled Okinawa, compares developing views in Japan on this issue with views in other countries, where dissatisfaction with the jury system is often evident, and concludes by assessing how the new system in Japan is working out and how it is likely to develop.

Popular Participation In Japanese Criminal Justice

Author: Andrew Watson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319350773
Size: 16.97 MB
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This book analyses the mixed courts of professional and lay judges in the Japanese criminal justice system. It takes a particular focus on the highly public start of the mixed court, the saiban-in system, and the jury system between 1928-1943. This was the first time Japanese citizens participated as decision makers in criminal law. The book assesses reasons for the jury system's failure, and its suspension in 1943, as well as the renewed interest in popular involvement in criminal justice at the end of the twentieth century. Popular Participation in Japanese Criminal Justice proceeds by explaining the process by which lay participation in criminal trials left the periphery to become an important national matter at the turn of the century. It shows that rather than an Anglo-American jury model, outline recommendations made by the Japanese Judicial Reform Council were for a mixed court of judges and laypersons to try serious cases. Concerns about the lay judge/saiban-in system are raised, as well as explanations for why it is flourishing in contemporary society despite the failure of the jury system during the period 1928-1943. The book presents the wider significance of Japanese mixed courts in Asia and beyond, and in doing so will be of great interests to scholars of socio-legal studies, criminology and criminal justice.

The Development Of Jury Service In Japan

Author: Anna Dobrovolskaia
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317035984
Size: 62.36 MB
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This book presents a comprehensive account of past and present efforts to introduce the jury system in Japan. Four legal reforms are documented and assessed: the implementation of the bureaucratic and all-judge special jury systems in the 1870s, the introduction of the all-layperson jury in the late 1920s, the transplantation of the Anglo-American-style jury system to Okinawa under the U.S. Occupation, and the implementation of the mixed-court lay judge (saiban’in) system in 2009. While being primarily interested in the related case studies, the book also discusses the instances when the idea of introducing trial by jury was rejected at different times in Japan’s history. Why does legal reform happen? What are the determinants of success and failure of a reform effort? What are the prospects of the saiban’in system to function effectively in Japan? This book offers important insights on the questions that lie at the core of the law and society debate and are highly relevant for understanding contemporary Japan and its recent and distant past.

Who Rules Japan

Author: Leon Wolff
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1784717495
Size: 34.69 MB
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The dramatic growth of the Japanese economy in the postwar period, and its meltdown in the 1990s, has attracted sustained interest in the power dynamics underlying the management of Japanês administrative state. Scholars and commentators have long deba

The Rule Of Law In Japan

Author: Carl F. Goodman
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 904112750X
Size: 65.61 MB
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Since publication of the first edition, practitioners who deal with Japanese law have put great store in this major work, which systematically compares U.S. law and Japanese law across all the major fields of legal practice. Japan's legal system has changed dramatically since the publication of the Second Revised Edition as a consequence of Legislation and Supreme Court decisions in such diverse areas as public law (including administrative, election, constitutional and criminal law) as well as private law (including custody, assisted reproduction technology, labor law, discrimination, corporate governance, civil litigation, etc.). This new edition follows the same comparative structure as formerly, but fully updates the coverage with the many changes currently in place or in process in Japanese law today while adding new chapters on Freedom of Expression and Conflict of Laws. Author Carl Goodman--an internationally known authority with extensive experience in international practice, university teaching in both Japan and the U.S., and U.S. government service--takes expert stock of these new developments, including the following: the ongoing liberalization of corporation law; the changes in criminal law brought about as a consequence of the system of lay/professional judges; the codification and clarification of rules dealing with transnational jurisdiction; protection of corporate whistleblowers; an evaluation of the revamping of the education system for lawyers; the new law governing choice of law questions in international cases; the protections extended to the growing temporary work force; freedom of religion--shrines on public lands--and freedom of conscience--teachers and the National Anthem; modified criminal law procedural protections and new rules for judicial evaluation of circumstantial evidence cases; communitarianism and Japanese law; continuing growth in judicial review including constitutional and administrative cases; and family law--surrogacy, adoption, ART, international custody and the Hague Convention, Gender Identity disorder, brain death, organ transplantation etc. Although the alteration of the legal landscape in Japan is highly visible, the author does not hesitate to raise questions as to how far-reaching the changes really are. In almost every branch of the new Japanese legal practice he uncovers ways in which laws and judicial rulings are closely qualified and are likely to present challenges in any given case. He reminds the reader in each chapter that 'what you see may not be what you get.' For this reason, and for its comprehensive coverage, this third edition is sure to gain new adherents as the best-informed practical guide for lawyers with dealings in Japan.

The Spirit Of Japanese Law

Author: John Owen Haley
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 0820328871
Size: 49.36 MB
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The Spirit of Japanese Law focuses on the century following the Meiji Constitution, Japan's initial reception of continental European law. As John Owen Haley traces the features of contemporary Japanese law and its principal actors, distinctive patterns emerge. Of these none is more ubiquitous than what he refers to as the law's "communitarian orientation." While most westerners may view judges as Japanese law's least significant actors, Haley argues that they have the last word because their interpretations of constitution and codes define the authority and powers they and others hold. Based on a "sense of society," the judiciary confirms bonds of village, family, and firm, and "abuse of rights" and "good faith" similarly affirms community. The Spirit of Japanese Law concludes with constitutional cases that help explain the endurance of community in contemporary Japan.

The Missing American Jury

Author: Suja A. Thomas
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107055652
Size: 56.91 MB
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Explores why juries have declined in power and how the federal government and the states have taken the jury's authority.

Second Best Justice

Author: J. Mark Ramseyer
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022628204X
Size: 64.22 MB
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It’s long been known that Japanese file fewer lawsuits per capita than Americans do. Yet explanations for the difference have tended to be partial and unconvincing, ranging from circular arguments about Japanese culture to suggestions that the slow-moving Japanese court system acts as a deterrent. With Second-Best Justice, J. Mark Ramseyer offers a more compelling, better-grounded explanation: the low rate of lawsuits in Japan results not from distrust of a dysfunctional system but from trust in a system that works—that sorts and resolves disputes in such an overwhelmingly predictable pattern that opposing parties rarely find it worthwhile to push their dispute to trial. Using evidence from tort claims across many domains, Ramseyer reveals a court system designed not to find perfect justice, but to “make do”—to adopt strategies that are mostly right and that thereby resolve disputes quickly and economically. An eye-opening study of comparative law, Second-Best Justice will force a wholesale rethinking of the differences among alternative legal systems and their broader consequences for social welfare.