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Judicial Independence And The American Constitution

Author: Martin H. Redish
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 1503601846
Size: 42.97 MB
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The Framers of the American Constitution took special pains to ensure that the governing principles of the republic were insulated from the reach of simple majorities. Only super-majoritarian amendments could modify these fundamental constitutional dictates. The Framers established a judicial branch shielded from direct majoritarian political accountability to protect and enforce these constitutional limits. Paradoxically, only a counter-majoritarian judicial branch could ensure the continued vitality of our representational form of government. This important lesson of the paradox of American democracy has been challenged and often ignored by office holders and legal scholars. Judicial Independence and the American Constitution provocatively defends the centrality of these special protections of judicial independence. Martin H. Redish explains how the nation's system of counter-majoritarian constitutionalism cannot survive absent the vesting of final powers of constitutional interpretation and enforcement in the one branch of government expressly protected by the Constitution from direct political accountability: the judicial branch. He uncovers how the current framework of American constitutional law has been unwisely allowed to threaten or undermine these core precepts of judicial independence.

In The Shadow Of Korematsu

Author: Eric K. Yamamoto
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190878959
Size: 47.86 MB
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The national security and civil liberties tensions of the World War II mass incarceration link 9/11 and the 2015 Paris-San Bernardino attacks to the Trump era in America - an era darkened by accelerating discrimination against and intimidation of those asserting rights of freedom of religion, association and speech, and an era marked by increasingly volatile protests. This book discusses the broad civil liberties challenges posed by these past-into-the-future linkages highlighting pressing questions about the significance of judicial independence for a constitutional democracy committed both to security and to the rule of law. What will happen when those profiled, detained, harassed, or discriminated against under the mantle of national security turn to the courts for legal protection? How will the U.S. courts respond to the need to protect both society and fundamental democratic values of our political process? Will courts fall passively in line with the elective branches, as they did in Korematsu v. United States, or serve as the guardian of the Bill of Rights, scrutinizing claims of "pressing public necessity" as justification for curtailing fundamental liberties? These queries paint three pictures portrayed in this book. First, they portray the present-day significance of the Supreme Court's partially discredited, yet never overruled, 1944 decision upholding the constitutional validity of the mass Japanese American exclusion leading to indefinite incarceration - a decision later found to be driven by the government's presentation of "intentional falsehoods" and "willful historical inaccuracies" to the Court. Second, the queries implicate prospects for judicial independence in adjudging Harassment, Exclusion, Incarceration disputes in contemporary America and beyond. Third, and even more broadly for security and liberty controversies, the queries engage the American populace in shaping law and policy at the ground level by placing the courts' legitimacy on center stage. They address how critical legal advocacy and organized public pressure targeting judges and policymakers - realpolitik advocacy - at times can foster judicial fealty to constitutional principles while promoting the elective branches accountability for the benefit of all Americans. This book addresses who we are as Americans and whether we are genuinely committed to democracy governed by the Constitution.

Wie Demokratien Sterben

Author: Steven Levitsky
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641222915
Size: 72.37 MB
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Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Revolution By Judiciary

Author: Jed Rubenfeld
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674017153
Size: 60.52 MB
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Although constitutional law is supposed to be fixed and enduring, its central narrative in the twentieth century has been one of radical reinterpretation--Brown v. Board of Education, Roe v. Wade, Bush v. Gore. What, if anything, justifies such radical reinterpretation? How does it work doctrinally? What, if anything, structures it or limits it? Jed Rubenfeld finds a pattern in American constitutional interpretation that answers these questions convincingly. He posits two different understandings of how constitutional rights would apply or not apply to particular legislation. One is that a right would be violated if certain laws were passed. The other is that a right would not be violated. He calls the former "Application Understandings" and the latter "No-Application Understandings." He finds that constitutional law has almost always adhered to all of the original Application Understandings, but where it has departed from history, as it did in the Brown decision, it has departed from No-Application Understandings. Specifically, the Fourteenth Amendment did not prohibit racial segregation, so Rubenfeld argues that the Supreme Court had no problem reinterpreting it to prohibit it. It was a No-Application Understanding. This is a powerful argument that challenges current theories of constitutional interpretation from Bork to Dworkin. It rejects simplistic originalism, but restores historicity to constitutional theorizing.

Das Globalisierungs Paradox

Author: Dani Rodrik
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406613517
Size: 42.47 MB
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Ein Plädoyer gegen Hyperglobalisierung und für eine gewisse demokratische Renationalisierung der Wirtschaftspolitik.

Institutions Of American Democracy The Judicial Branch

Author: Kermit L. Hall
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195171721
Size: 13.28 MB
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Presents a collection of essays examining the American judiciary, including such topics as judicial review and interpretation, judicial activism, the judiciary and the political process, and selecting Supreme Court justices.

Zwei Reformationen

Author: Heiko A. Oberman
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 3641037174
Size: 24.97 MB
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Zu den Gründungsmythen des deutschen Protestantismus gehört die Stilisierung Martin Luthers als ersten Protestanten und deutschen Propheten, dessen Protest gegen die »babylonische Gefangenschaft der Kirche« zur wundersamen Befreiung von der päpstlichen Tyrannei und zum Ausbruch aus dem finsteren Zeitalter des Mittelalters führte. Obermans Essays widerlegen hingegen in streitbarer Auseinandersetzung die These, Martin Luther habe als einsame, revolutionäre Gestalt - gegen seine Zeit - die Moderne eingeläutet. Stattdessen interpretiert er den »reformatorischen Durchbruch« Martin Luthers im Zusammenhang der vielfältigen intellektuellen Strömungen und Frömmigkeitsbewegungen einer vitalen spätmittelalterlichen christlichen Gesellschaft, die bereits eine Vielzahl reformerischer Kräfte in sich barg. Wie schon in seinem früheren Buch über den Reformator führt er dem Leser zudem die überraschende Tatsache vor Augen, dass Luther - trotz seiner theologischen Neuansätze und seiner Entfremdung von der mönchischen Lebensweise - tief im spätmittelalterlichen Weltbild mitsamt seinen antisemitischen Elementen und seinen apokalyptischen Endzeiterwartungen verhaftet blieb. Vor diesem Hintergrund entfaltet der Autor seine spannende Unterscheidung zwischen der von Wittenberg ausgehenden »ersten Reformation«, die für die deutschen Territorialstaaten prägend wurde, und der »zweiten Reformation« des humanistisch inspirierten Protestantismus, die von den protestantischen Flüchtlingen in den freien Städten ausging und eine völlig andere Zukunftsvision vertrat als Luther. Vor allem bei Calvin, dessen Biografie und Denken im zweiten Teil des Buches eingehend interpretiert werden, findet sich statt des Endzeitbewusstseins die Vision eines kulturell und sozial erneuerten Europa, die Oberman als den eigentlichen Beitrag des Protestantismus zur Moderne versteht.