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Knowledge As Power

Author: Wayne A. Logan
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804771391
Size: 54.67 MB
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Societies have long sought security by identifying potentially dangerous individuals in their midst. America is surely no exception. Knowledge as Power traces the evolution of a modern technique that has come to enjoy nationwide popularity—criminal registration laws. Registration, which originated in the 1930s as a means of monitoring gangsters, went largely unused for decades before experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the 1990s. Since then it has been complemented by community notification laws which, like the "Wanted" posters of the Frontier West, publicly disclose registrants' identifying information, involving entire communities in the criminal monitoring process. Knowledge as Power provides the first in-depth history and analysis of criminal registration and community notification laws, examining the potent forces driving their rapid nationwide proliferation in the 1990s through today, as well as exploring how the laws have affected the nation's law, society, and governance. In doing so, the book provides compelling insights into the manifold ways in which registration and notification reflect and influence life in modern America.

Sex Fiends Perverts And Pedophiles

Author: Chrysanthi S. Leon
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814752586
Size: 68.72 MB
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From sex fiend laws to Jessica's Law, every state regularly passes popular tough-on-crime legislation, often written after highly-publicized cases have made the gruesome rounds through the media. Chrysanthi Leon shows that, while the singular notion of the sexual bogeyman has been used to justify these harsh policies, not all sex offenders are the same and such 'one size fits all' policies are well-intentioned but badly implemented. Leon argues for much-needed changes to the criminal justice system, ultimately showing that when policies intended for the worst offenders take over, all of us suffer.

Sex Offenses And Sex Offenders

Author: Teela Sanders
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190213639
Size: 11.45 MB
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There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years in both the academic and public spheres. From heightened media attention on sex crimes to new waves of legislation aimed at crime prevention, issues related to sexual assault, harassment, and sexual violence have become a top priority in the Western countries. The Oxford Handbook on Sex Offenses and Sex Offenders provides comprehensive, even-handed analysis of the myriad of topics related to sex offenses, including pornography, sex trafficking, criminal justice responses, and the role of social media in sex crimes. Extending beyond the existing scholarly research on the topic, this volume teases out the key debates, controversies, and challenges involved in addressing sex crimes. While most discourse regarding sex offenders either involves prevention and control or, conversely, potential treatment options, this Handbook delves into the psychological, historical, and social contexts related to sex offenses, providing a more holistic view of the topic. The definitive volume on sex crimes and sex offenders, The Oxford Handbook on Sex Offenses and Sex Offenders makes an invaluable contribution to criminological literature.

More Guns Less Crime

Author: John R. Lott
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226493671
Size: 35.42 MB
Format: PDF
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On its initial publication in 1998, John R. Lott’s More Guns, Less Crime drew both lavish praise and heated criticism. More than a decade later, it continues to play a key role in ongoing arguments over gun-control laws: despite all the attacks by gun-control advocates, no one has ever been able to refute Lott’s simple, startling conclusion that more guns mean less crime. Relying on the most rigorously comprehensive data analysis ever conducted on crime statistics and right-to-carry laws, the book directly challenges common perceptions about the relationship of guns, crime, and violence. For this third edition, Lott draws on an additional ten years of data—including provocative analysis of the effects of gun bans in Chicago and Washington, D.C—that brings the book fully up to date and further bolsters its central contention.

Crime Victims With Developmental Disabilities

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030917127X
Size: 75.68 MB
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Although violent crime in the United States has declined over the past five years, certain groups appear to remain at disproportionately high risk for violent victimization. In the United States, people with developmental disabilities-such as mental retardation, autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe learning disabilities may be included in this group. While the scientific evidence is scanty, a handful of studies from the United States, Canada, Australia, and Great Britain consistently find high rates of violence and abuse affecting people with these kinds of disabilities. A number of social and demographic trends are converging that may worsen the situation considerably over the next several years. The prevalence of developmental disabilities has increased in low-income populations, due to a number of factors, such as poor prenatal nutrition, lack of access to health care or better perinatal care for some fragile babies, and increases in child abuse and substance abuse during pregnancy. For example, a recent report of the California State Council on Developmental Disabilities found that during the past decade, while the state population increased by 20 percent, the number of persons with developmental disabilities in California increased by 52 percent and the population segment with mild mental retardation doubled. Because of a growing concern among parents and advocates regarding possible high rates of crime victimization among persons with developmental disabilities, Congress, through the Crime Victims with Disabilities Awareness Act of 1998, requested that the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences conduct a study to increase knowledge and information about crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities that will be useful in developing new strategies to reduce the incidence of crimes against those individuals. Crime Victims with Developmental Disabilities summarizes the workshop and addresses the following issues: (1) the nature and extent of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; (2) the risk factors associated with victimization of individuals with developmental disabilities; (3) the manner in which the justice system responds to crimes against individuals with disabilities; and (4) the means by which states may establish and maintain a centralized computer database on the incidence of crimes against individuals with disabilities within a state.

Raised On The Registry

Author: Nicole Pittman
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781623130084
Size: 71.35 MB
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This report details the harm public registration laws cause for youth sex offenders. The laws, which can apply for decades or even a lifetime and are layered on top of time in prison or juvenile detention, require placing offenders' personal information on online registries, often making them targets for harassment, humiliation, and even violence. The laws also severely restrict where, and with whom, youth sex offenders may live, work, attend school, or even spend time.

The Fabrication Of Social Order

Author: Mark Neocleous
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745314846
Size: 58.96 MB
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Anyone who considers questions of power cannot help but be struck by the ubiquitous nature, emotional force and political pull of the concept of order. The Fabrication of Social Order examines the role of policing in the fabrication of order.After an initial exploration of the original relationship between police, state power and the question of order, Neocleous focuses on the ways in which eighteenth century liberalism refined and narrowed the concept of the police, a process which masked the power of capital and broader issues of social control. In doing so he challenges the way liberalism came to define policing solely in terms of the question of crime and the rule of law. This liberal definition created a limited and fundamentally misleading understanding of policing which remains in use today. In contrast, Neocleous argues for an expanded concept of police, adequate to the expansive set of institutions through which policing takes place. These institutions are concerned not just with the maintenance or reproduction of order, but with its fabrication, especially the fabrication of a social order based on wage labour. This project, he argues, should be understood as the project of social security. Grasping this point allows a fuller understanding of the ways in which the state polices and secures civil society, and how order is fabricated through law and administration.

The Enforcement Of Intellectual Property Rights

Author: L.T.C. Harms
Publisher: WIPO
ISBN: 9280522493
Size: 56.49 MB
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With this publication, WIPO and the author aim at making available for judges, lawyers and law enforcement officials a valuable tool for the handling of intellectual property cases. To that effect, the case book uses carefully selected court decisions drawn from various countries with either civil or common law traditions. The extracts from the decisions and accompanying comments illustrate the different areas of intellectual property law, with an emphasis on matters that typically arise in connection with the enforcement of intellectual property rights in civil as well as criminal proceedings.

Measurement Problems In Criminal Justice Research

Author: Committee on Law and Justice
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309086353
Size: 12.85 MB
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Most major crime in this country emanates from two major data sources. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports has collected information on crimes known to the police and arrests from local and state jurisdictions throughout the country. The National Crime Victimization Survey, a general population survey designed to cover the extent, nature, and consequences of criminal victimization, has been conducted annually since the early1970s. This workshop was designed to consider similarities and differences in the methodological problems encountered by the survey and criminal justice research communities and what might be the best focus for the research community. In addition to comparing and contrasting the methodological issues associated with self-report surveys and official records, the workshop explored methods for obtaining accurate self-reports on sensitive questions about crime events, estimating crime and victimization in rural counties and townships and developing unbiased prevalence and incidence rates for rate events among population subgroups.

Power Conflict And Criminalisation

Author: Phil Scraton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134101112
Size: 36.71 MB
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Drawing on a body of empirical, qualitative work spanning three decades, this unique text traces the significance of critical social research and critical analyses in understanding some of the most significant and controversial issues in contemporary society. Focusing on central debates in the UK and Ireland – prison protests; inner-city uprisings; deaths in custody; women’s imprisonment; transition in the north of Ireland; the ‘crisis’ in childhood; the Hillsborough and Dunblane tragedies; and the ‘war on terror’ – Phil Scraton argues that ‘marginalisation’ and ‘criminalisation’ are social forces central to the application of state power and authority. Each case study demonstrates how structural relations of power, authority and legitimacy, establish the determining contexts of everyday life, social interaction and individual opportunity. This book explores the politics and ethics of critical social research, making a persuasive case for the application of critical theory to analysing the rule of law, its enforcement and the administration of criminal justice. It is indispensable for students in the fields of criminology, criminal justice and socio-legal studies, social policy and social work.